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14 votes
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Dagesh at end of בראת

The tav is one of the beged kefet letters, which always takes a dagesh kal, when it starts a new syllable after a previously closed one (i.e. the previous syllable ends with a consonant). To quote ...
Joel K's user avatar
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13 votes

Reason for different punctuation of the prefix vav?

In biblical Hebrew: When preceding an imperfect (future-form) verb to make it past tense, the vav has a patach. However, that patach becomes a kamatz before an alef. Otherwise, when the word is the ...
msh210's user avatar
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10 votes
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Pronunciation of בשגם - Patach or Kamatz?

R. Yaakov Sappir had the same question about 150 years ago and asked the community in Aleppo to check the Aleppo Codex for a final ruling. They reported that בשגם has only Patch vowels. You can't ask ...
Double AA's user avatar
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9 votes
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כּרְעוּתֵהּ (with a dagesh in the כּ) or כרְעוּתֵהּ (without the dagesh) in Kaddish?

The general rule is that letters "בגד כפת" do have a dagesh when they appear in the beginning of a word, unless the word follows a word that ends with one of the vowels (אהוי), and there's a ...
Cauthon's user avatar
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9 votes
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Adon Olam: "Yetzir" or "Yetzur"?

DISCLAIMER: While the study Hebrew grammar is of interest to me, I am far from proficient in it, and hopefully those who know more will add to the discussion. My answer is marei mekomos and a highly ...
termsofservice's user avatar
9 votes
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Why are there varying vowels on proper nouns in Megillas Ester?

There are grammatical rules in general, but for your case: It's always שושַן הבירה, otherwise שושָן. It's always מרדכַי except on an esnachta, sof pasuk, or in exactly one case a zakeif katon ויגידו ...
Heshy's user avatar
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9 votes

Why are there varying vowels on proper nouns in Megillas Ester?

מרדכי takes a Kamatz when it is on a hard pause (same as most nouns that have a patach or segol on the primary stress). שושן takes a Patach when it is attached to הבירה (same as the construct form of ...
Double AA's user avatar
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9 votes
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What rule governs the varying nikkud in words מִשְׁתֶּה and מִשְׁתֵּה?

When משתה is in construct state it has a tzere instead of a segol and would mean "drinking-party of" instead of just "drinking-party".
Double AA's user avatar
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9 votes
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How to apply the Masoretic note, "2x, once plene and once defectively" to Ruth 1:1?

The Masoretic note you have is from the Leningrad Codex. However, the Aleppo Codex indicates in the masorah gedolah in Chronicles that there are 3 instances of the word (see also Mikraot Gedolot ...
Kazi bácsi's user avatar
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9 votes

What does שליט"א stand for?

For what it's worth, the Otzar of Roshei Teivot on Bar Ilan lists both שיחיה לאורך ימים טובים ארוכים and שיחיה לאורך ימים טובים אמן. I prefer the latter, because the former is redundant, as pointed ...
רבות מחשבות's user avatar
8 votes
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In Bamidbar 11:5 why does it use the word נֹאכַ֥ל which is typically future tense?

Rav Zalman Sorotzkin in his אזנים לתורה suggests that they were hinting that they wished to return to Egypt. אשר נאכל במצרים. אשר אכלנו לא אמרו, אלא "אשר נאכל" - בזה טמון רמז דק: "אשר נאכל" אם נשוב ...
Rish's user avatar
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8 votes

Where is exactly is שָֽׁם in the pasuk גַּם־בִּי֙ הִתְאַנַּ֣ף יְהוָ֔ה בִּגְלַלְכֶ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה לֹא־תָבֹ֥א שָֽׁם (Devarim 1:37)

שמה is not the feminine form of שם. Inasmuch as there is a difference in meaning, שמה may mean "to there" (as in מצרימה - "to Egypt" in, e.g., Genesis 12:11) whereas שם just means "there". See also, ...
Loewian's user avatar
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8 votes

Mil'al vs. Milra on "Lamah"

The word is spelled לָמָה (without a dagesh and stressed on the final syllable) when the following word begins with an א or ה or ע,* and spelled לָמָּה (with a dagesh and stressed on the penultimate ...
b a's user avatar
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8 votes
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Priestly blessing grammar - יאר

The root of יָאֵר is אור. The binyan is הפעיל (and נחי ע"ו). The form יָאֵר instead of יָאִיר is due to jussive mood ("may he shine" instead of "he will shine"). The word וְיָשֵׂם in the next verse is ...
b a's user avatar
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8 votes
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Why isn't המלך המשפט a grammatical mistake?

This question is in fact dealt with by Rashi on the spot, who says that the first ה is redundant, and this has the same meaning as מלך המשפט, citing scriptural precedents for this phrasing. Basically -...
Josh Friedlander's user avatar
8 votes

Final Pay ף ??? - Exists or Not?

It does exist and appears precisely once in Tanach, in Mishlei 30:6: אַל־תּ֥וֹסְףְּ עַל־דְּבָרָ֑יו פֶּן־יוֹכִ֖יחַ בְּךָ֣ וְנִכְזָֽבְתָּ׃
Joel K's user avatar
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7 votes

Is the rule of "Nasog Achor" specific to the Bible?

Koren Publishers, for one, is unsure whether Nasog Achor applies outside the Biblical context, particularly to prayers. Consequently, in their publications, they default to not applying Nasog Achor ...
Isaac Moses's user avatar
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7 votes
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What is the dot in this vav?

It's a Dagesh Forte which indicates gemination of the consonant "w". So the word would be read something like Yiwwadha' with a prolonged /w/ sound. The word is in passive future third-person ...
Double AA's user avatar
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7 votes

How to pronounce ישראל - Yisroel or Yisrael?

The Ashkenazi pronunciation of Hebrew distinguishes seven different vowels. They can be arranged more or less as follows (first represented in Hebrew orthography under the letter א, then in IPA if you ...
b a's user avatar
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7 votes

Vowels in tefilat Hashachar

This kind of vowelization doesn't appear anywhere in the Tanach, because nouns in semichut, or which mark possession, can never have a definite article in front of them. Dayan Levi Yitzchak Raskin, ...
b a's user avatar
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7 votes
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What is the form of טבו in מה טבו אהליך יעקב?

The word טֹּבוּ is a verb (not an adjective like טוֹב), conjugated for past (perfect aspect). Compare the conjugation of אֹרוּ (I Samuel 14:29). This is the conjugation normally used to describe a ...
b a's user avatar
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7 votes

Gomel chasadim tovim - are there bad chasadim?

Some thoughts: טוב can be used to mean complete. For example: One of Rashi's explanations of why it says טוב zero times on day 2 of Creation and twice on day 3 is because nothing was completed on ...
Y     e     z's user avatar
7 votes

Mishloach Manos or Shalach Manos?

The phrase שלח-מנות is the accepted term in Yiddish and משלוח-מנות is the accepted term in Hebrew (based on Esther 9:22). Here is the entry in Harkavy's Yiddish-English dictionary: and here is the ...
Deuteronomy's user avatar
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7 votes

In Parshas Chukas, why is first mention of Parah Adumah "פָרָה" instead of "פָּרָה"?

Generally, when a word ends in a vowel sound, without a pausal cantillation note on that word, the first letter in the next word loses its dagesh. Usually, the rule is stated in terms of the previous ...
Isaac Moses's user avatar
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7 votes
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The grammatical nature of וָאִמָּלְטָה in the context of Job 1:15. How exactly did the only surviving servant "slip away"?

I don't think that the final ה indicates the cohortative here, but rather it is a paragogic ה- attached to a wayyiqtol form of the root מלט (nif`al). This type of ה is described in Joüon & Muraoka ...
Argon's user avatar
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7 votes

Which part of Hebrew or textual grammar tells the reader to add to the verb in question the word "habitually"?

Great question! It's not just the "from yesterday"; it's the conjugation on the word "goring", looking very, very carefully at the vowels: נַגָּח That's a patach (straight line) ...
Shalom's user avatar
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7 votes

Anachronisms in the torah?

This question is addressed by several of the commentators to this verse. Radak suggests either that the place was called Dan based on the future, or that it is referring to a different place that was ...
Alex's user avatar
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7 votes
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What's the difference between "Hinchilanu" and "Hinchaltanu"?

הנחילנו is in the third person: He has given us as a heritage. הנחלתנו is in the second person: You have given us as a heritage.
Joel K's user avatar
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6 votes

Difference in Nikkud for לא כי in Torah and Mishna

The letters בגדכפת take a Dagesh Kal at the start of a word, unless they follow a word ending in אהוי. There are four major exceptions to this rule when the Dagesh Kal is there even after a word ...
Double AA's user avatar
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6 votes

new artscroll siddur dikduk questions

1) הַטֵּה אֱלֹהַי אָזְנְךָ וּשְׁמָע is just a quote from Daniyel 9:18 and there is no Patach there. If you're seeing a Chataf-Patach in some editions, realize that's just an old fashioned way of ...
Double AA's user avatar
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