20

When the word stands on its own, with its own trup-mark, it's אֵת, with a tzeireh. When it's attached to the next word with a dash and therefore does not have its own trup-mark, it's אֶת, with a segol. I think I learned this in high school; unfortunately, I don't know a more precise source. I'm not sure what would be the underlying reason behind some ...


15

I would recommend William Wickes' treatise on the Taamei Emet. You are describing a revia mugrash, as distinct from a revia gadol or revia katon. It is indeed a disjunctive accent: To really understand its function, you should familiarize yourself with Wickes' description of the continuous dichotomy. But the pasuk is first divided at the etnachta (or ...


15

The Mahara"l of Prauge, in his commentary to Megilas Esther called Ohr Chadash, (after offering the more basic suggestion that this denotes something Mordechai would do on a constant basis), explains that even when Mordechai had an option to use an alternate route, he would make a point of going in front of Haman and not bowing down. The Ohr Hachayim ...


15

The word is אֵת. When the word is "joined" with the next word with a makaf "־" then they become treated as one long word, and there is no longer an accent on that syllable. Unaccented closed syllables (unlike accented closed syllables) take short vowels, so the vowel shifts to its shorter counterpart: tzere -> segol. You can also see this same phenomenon in ...


14

From Soncino's intro to Seder Moed: "It might be observed that the designation 'Mo'ed' is in the singular, as distinct from the plural forms used to designate the other Orders, e.g., Nashim, Nezikin, etc. It has been suggested that the singular is here specially used to avoid the confusion that might arise through the employment of the plural Seder Mo'adim (...


14

From what I can tell, either way you accent this word is probably fine. My understanding, based on Biblical grammar My understanding is that the accent in this case goes on the 'mo' syllable1, due to the rule of "nasog achor." This rule says that when multi-syllabic Word A is followed (without disjunctive cantillation) by Word B, and Word B has an ...


14

The tav is one of the beged kefet letters, which always takes a dagesh kal, when it starts a new syllable after a previously closed one (i.e. the previous syllable ends with a consonant). To quote from the relevant Wikipedia article: In Hebrew writing with niqqud, a dot in the center of one of these letters, called dagesh ( ּ ), marks the plosive ...


13

I linked in the comments to the question to an article by Dan Rabinowitz published by Hakirah journal regarding Jewish sources pertaining to the origin of the nekudos. [Note that although the taamim of the Tanach are not mentioned throughout the article, it seems implicit in most of the sources (and in the main source, actually explicit) that the same ...


13

HaMaor Volume 46 Number 3 Page 26 says that since all the Yomim Tovim are going to be nullified besides Purim when Moshiach comes therefore it is called Moed in singular form as the only Mesechta remaining will be Megila. Otzar Kol Minhagei Yishurin Siman 7 * note says that since the names of the Shisha Sidrei Mishna are based on the Pasuk והיה אמונת עתיך ...


12

The form 'כְּתוּבָה' certainly exists, as you state; it is the passive participle of the root כתב, and means "written", as in: "נבואתו כתובה על הקיר" = "his prophecy is written on the wall". However, this is not the same as the noun which designates a "marriage contract". Although there are exceptions, for the most part nouns with specific meanings are not ...


11

I posed this question to a tenured professor, whose PhD was in Aramaic Biblical Exegesis, and who is a published expert on several Semitic languages. This is what he wrote (edited for brevity; it was over several email exchanges over several months): Nafka minnah means the "thing that come out from it" The plural will therefore ought be "the things that ...


11

I'm fascinated by the midrashic answers presented for this! Are there more? From a scholarly perspective, the increased use of the participle in place of the narrative waw-consecutive imperfect (wayiqtol) form is a classic feature of Late Biblical Hebrew (LBH). To unpack that a bit... What Modern Hebrew treats as the "present tense" (words like molekh, ...


11

Ohr Chadash - Maharal M'Prag asks this question and answers that Mordechai intentionally made sure to be in the areas where Haman was going to show he was not going to bow down. לא יכרע, זהו אף שהיה יכול מרדכי ללכת בדרך אחרת שלא יהיה פוגע בו ולא יכעס המן


11

Yes, the Minchas Elazar was very makpid (strict) on both dikduk (grammar) and wording. His hakpada (strictness) is a major subject in the preface to the current main Munkacser siddur, Tzvi Tiferes. It outlines both commonly ignored rules, and points out that the siddur includes clear markings for mil'eil/mil'ra and sh'va na/nach. It also brings sources for ...


10

The letters בגד כפת have two versions, one with Dagesh and one without. It gets a Dagesh after a closed syllable, or in the beginning of a word. In this instance, the previous word ends with an open syllable. Therefore the פ does not receive a Dagesh. What of many instances where we see a word-initial פ receive a Dagesh where the previous word ended with ...


10

R. Yaakov Sappir had the same question about 150 years ago and asked the community in Aleppo to check the Aleppo Codex for a final ruling. They reported that בשגם has only Patch vowels. You can't ask for a better source than that. As for the specific claim about all printed Chumashim older than 50 years ago, R. Wolf Heidenheim's popular 1818 Chumash "Meor ...


10

In biblical Hebrew: When preceding an imperfect (future-form) verb to make it past tense, the vav has a patach. However, that patach becomes a kamatz before an alef. Otherwise, when the word is the last in a phrase and has its stress on the syllable after the prefixed vav, that vav has a kamatz. If none of the above apply, the prefix has a sh'va, except ...


9

To posit some sort of "prophetic perfect tense" or the like is entirely superfluous. I am confident that one is unable to grammatically distinguish between regular and "prophetic" usage. However we do find examples where a prophet will speak from a point of view in which a future event is seen as having transpired, see Numbers 24:17 for example. This is ...


9

"Ben" is Hebrew, whereas "Bar" is Aramaic. Thus, a mishnah or braisa discussing RSB"Y will usually use "Ben" and a statement made by an amorah will usually use "Bar".


9

See here for more. Biblical Hebrew employs a rule called the "vav ha-hipuch." The preceding "v'" flips the tense from past to future, or vice versa. Thus "yehi chen", it will be so; "vayhi chen", it was so. "Amar Paroh", Pharaoh said; "v'amar Paroh livnei yisrael" -- Pharoh will say regarding the Jews. "Moshe yedaber", Moses would speak. "Vaydaber Moshe" ...


9

The general rule is that letters "בגד כפת" do have a dagesh when they appear in the beginning of a word, unless the word follows a word that ends with one of the vowels (אהוי), and there's a contextual connection between the two words (for example, "אחרי כן"). So here, by saying "כרעותיה" without a dagesh, you are actually saying that the two words "ברא ...


9

DISCLAIMER: While the study Hebrew grammar is of interest to me, I am far from proficient in it, and hopefully those who know more will add to the discussion. My answer is marei mekomos and a highly simplified summary of the reasons behind each spelling. Several of the sources were cited in Dayan Raskin's notes on the Chabad siddur, an extremely helpful book ...


9

When משתה is in construct state it has a tzere instead of a segol and would mean "drinking-party of" instead of just "drinking-party".


8

Aruch HaShulchan 268:14 explains that Shabbos is called in the Torah both masculine and feminine. כי קדש היא לכם מחלליה מות יומת is feminine. זכור את יום השבת לקדשו is masculine. In the Torah there is a feminine way of referring to evening (ליל) therefore we say "בה" then. Day (יום) is only masculine in the Torah therefore we say "בו". Mincha time which ...


8

The Malbim explains this in his commentary "Hatorah Ve'hamitva" to Sifra 73 (explained here to the best of my understanding): Camel hooves are in fact partially split, and according to common science they are considered to have "split hooves". However the Torah requires (see Vayikra 11:3 and Rashi there) that they be "שסעת שסע" - completely split into ...


8

chirik - adoni - "my [human] master" patach - adonai - "my [human] masters" komotz - adonoi - "my Lord-of-all-things" = God . Its own special grammatical construction specifically used for the name of God.


8

Rabbi Levi Yitzchok Shneerson explains this discrepancy Kabbalistically (Likkutey Levi Yitzchok (Pesukey Tanach Umamareh Chazal pg. 95, see Sefer Ha'erchin Chabad (Mareches Ha'osyos vol. 1 pg. 369)). The main idea is as follows: There is a concept in Kabbalah known as the "18 Women of Leah" (which is why a king may marry a maximum of 18 wives). This is ...


8

It should first be noted that the k'thiv/q'rei phenomenon you refer to is only observed in the Pentateuch and not elsewhere in Tanach. That being said, there appear to be two major camps on this issue. One camp believes along the lines of what you suggested, namely that הוא was actually written to mean היא. The explanation is that waw and yod were used ...


8

The entire prayer, except for the last line, is in Aramaic. צלי, צלא, or צלו are different constructs of the word meaning "pray". צלותהון means "their prayers". As for the root, I believe it is likely correct that it is צלא, though a part of me wants to go digging in my old Aramaic text books to rule out the possibility that it is צלי. I have never heard ...


8

I had asked this question to a professor of Hebrew many years ago and he told me that the word שבת is female. The confusion arises because the Torah often refers to the day of שבת, which is male. Thus, 35:2 refers to the seventh day שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִהְיֶה לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן לַיהֹוָה כָּל הָעֹשֶׂה ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible