22

1) Because it is the first word on the pasuk and deserved a zakef. At this distance from the etnachta, this would be a segolta. But a segolta needs a preceding zarka, and this is the first word. And so it becomes a shalshelet. 2) Rav Chaim Kanievsky, in Taama deKra, cites a different sefer, which gives a consistent explanation of shalshelet as extension. ...


16

סידור אוצר התפילות writes: וכן כתב של"ה שירת הים צריך לאמרה מעומד ובשמחה רבה כאלו אותה שעה יצא ממצרים, ובכוונה ובנגון הטעמים And so writes the Shaloh, Shiras Hayam must be said standing, and with great joy as if at that moment he one was leaving mitzrayim, with kavana, and with the tune of the ta'amim. סידור שפה ברורה (a German siddur) says: שירת ...


15

I would recommend William Wickes' treatise on the Taamei Emet. You are describing a revia mugrash, as distinct from a revia gadol or revia katon. It is indeed a disjunctive accent: To really understand its function, you should familiarize yourself with Wickes' description of the continuous dichotomy. But the pasuk is first divided at the etnachta (or ...


14

All three books (Iyov Mishlei and Tehillim) are written in a complex poetic style. The separate trop represents the shift from prose to poetry and may have been sung in a more songful manner than the regular prose trop. A proof to this distinction lies in Iyov, whose first, second and final chapters are written in prose and have regular trop. EDIT: The ...


12

I linked in the comments to the question to an article by Dan Rabinowitz published by Hakirah journal regarding Jewish sources pertaining to the origin of the nekudos. [Note that although the taamim of the Tanach are not mentioned throughout the article, it seems implicit in most of the sources (and in the main source, actually explicit) that the same ...


12

The alternation you are speaking of is between a zakef gadol (on the many, short names) and a 'pashta'-zakef katon (on somewhat longer words). Both of these are really a zakef. When the zakef comes on the first word of a clause, or of a pasuk, as it does here, then there is no place for the servus. This is where we typically see a zakef gadol version of the ...


10

Some Mishnah manuscripts have sporadic taamim. For example, MS Parma B (containing order Tahorot) has conjuctive accents connecting words and disjunctive accents marking pauses. Here is the beginning of Mishnah Tahorot: Here is Genizah fragment T-S E1.107 in Tractate Sanhedrin, vocalized with Eretz-Israeli accents (and occasionally, vocalization): Here ...


9

That pasuk is not used in my experience as an example of trop. However, in the book An'im Zemorot by Elli Schorr he gives a list of the different Ta'amim using common examples of their occurrence. I know that when I first read this I recognized which psukim 90% of the examples were from just based on the trop from the one word. Maybe other ba'alei kriya ...


9

Based on observations in a Sepharadic environment: I have signed ta'amim for several readers using systems they taught me. They all seem to be based around the same signs, even if there are nuances between various methods. They are more or less imitations of the ta'am symbol, using your hand against the inside edge of the Sefer Torah case (upright, of ...


9

Asher Laufer (אשר לאופר) wrote a paper "תנועות ידיים וראש בשעת קריאת התורה" on this subject. He describes (in my own very loose translation and sometimes condensation): In Rabat, Morocco, the Torah reader himself moved his right hand or his head when reading words with mafsik (pausal) cantillation. That is, the motions constituted an "accompaniment": ...


9

The only time the munnaḥ gets the shaky trope is when it's a munnaḥ-legarmeh, which visually looks like a munnaḥ followed by a p'siq. The munnaḥ-legarmeh is a "טעם מפסיק" (a disjunctive accent), whereas the normal munnaḥ is a "טעם משרת" (a conjunctive accent), so it makes sense to give the shaky trope only to the munnaḥ-legarmeh. See any tiqqun for a list ...


9

As with the 21 books, most of the time the accent is on the letter marked and there are a handful that are always at the beginning or end of a word where you have to just know the grammar unless you have a modern printing that duplicates the mark on the accented letter. This latter group includes Tzinnor (looks like the 21 book Zarka) at the end, Dechi (...


8

Although the Gra is famous for saying that there is remez (symbolism) behind all the ta'amim (trope) in the Torah, simply speaking the ta'amim we use are purely grammatical. There are several levels of "stopper" ta'amim that indicate a pause in the text, i.e. that this word is not connected to the next. Grammatically speaking, zakef gadol and kadma-zakef-...


8

From Webster Dictionary Latin tropus, from Greek tropos turn, way, manner, style, trope, from trepein to turn First Known Use: 1533 The most common Hebrew term I have heard for this is טעמי המקרא. Interesting to note that both terms seem to focus on different aspects of what "trope" is or does. The Latin root has a definition meaning "style", and ...


8

I had a script run through mechon-mamre's text. There are four verses with four, and none with more than that. (Actually, two of the verses are essentially a statement and its echo.) They are: II Samuel 17:9 הִנֵּ֨ה עַתָּ֤ה הֽוּא־נֶחְבָּא֙ בְּאַחַ֣ת הַפְּחָתִ֔ים א֖וֹ בְּאַחַ֣ד הַמְּקוֹמֹ֑ת וְהָיָ֗ה כִּנְפֹ֤ל בָּהֶם֙ בַּתְּחִלָּ֔ה וְשָׁמַ֤ע הַשֹּׁמֵ֨עַ֙ ...


8

Trop marks are traditionally always placed on the accented syllable EXCEPT Yetiv and Telisha Gedola which are always on the first letter, and Telisha Ketana, Pashta, Zarka, and Segol which are always on the last letter. In those words, you have to just know where the accent goes. (Many printers nowadays print a second trop mark on the accented syllable in ...


8

The minimum number of verses that you'd need is at most three. Yirmeyahu 32:8 (Haftara for Behar) to get Munach, Telisha-Gedola, Kadma, Azla, Zarka, Segol, Pazeir, Munach-Legarmeih, Revi'i, Gershayim, Darga, Tevir, Merkha, Tipcha, Etnachta, Zakeif-Gadol, Sof-Pasuk. Yeshayahu 55:10 (Haftara for fast days at Mincha) to get Telisha-Ketana, Pashta, Zakeif-...


8

Just like the trope, the tunes are traditional, and yes, each community has its own tunes and even its own system of chanting. A chazan (cantor) also has significant leeway in choosing tunes. Since the text is set but the tune is not, the chazan can simply compose a new tune or adapt someone else's tune. There are halachot regarding this, but not everyone ...


8

Quantified Cantillation is what you need. It is designed to search the Torah for specific sequences of trop. I can tell using it that there is one zarka-munach-zarka in Breishit 42:21 and one in Shmot 12:29, and a zarka-munach-munach-zarka in Vayikra 17:5. Caveats: Torah only, not the rest of Tanach No searching backwards It is open source, so you are ...


8

The word is spelled לָמָה (without a dagesh and stressed on the final syllable) when the following word begins with an א or ה or ע,* and spelled לָמָּה (with a dagesh and stressed on the penultimate syllable) in every other case. There are eight exceptions to these rules (enumerated in Masora Gedola to Psalms 43:2): The three cases of לָמָה before letters ...


7

Koren Publishers, for one, is unsure whether Nasog Achor applies outside the Biblical context, particularly to prayers. Consequently, in their publications, they default to not applying Nasog Achor unless the text in question comes directly from a Biblical source where it is indicated by the cantillation. I learned of this policy from a note I received from ...


7

Here is a partial answer. Shaarei Zimra says that there are 5 locations total in Tanach with these two combinations. The first two you mentioned. 1 - Bereishis 5:29 זֶ֠֞ה יְנַֽחֲמֵ֤נוּ מִֽמַּעֲשֵׂ֨נוּ֙ 2 - Vayikra 10:4 קִ֠רְב֞וּ שְׂא֤וּ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם֙ 3 - Melachim2 17:13 שֻׁ֠֜בוּ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶ֤ם הָֽרָעִים֙ 4 - Yechezkel 48:10 וּ֠לְאֵ֜לֶּה תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה ...


7

I have used and found excellent the book Chanting the Hebrew Bible by Joshua Jacobson. It comprises a background/history of the subject, a detailed grammatical treatment (one-by-one introducing the disjunctive te'amim and their function; introducing the relevant conjunctive te'amim with each disjunctive; diagrammatical syntax trees; examples; exercises), a ...


7

I don't have enough rep to comment above, but I'm the creator of quantifiedcantillation.nl, and since I saw a few referrals from this question I thought I'd stop by. It looks like my site should be able to answer all of your questions. (Thanks, @Double-AA!) For the etnakhta question, if you go to the settings (small cog icon in the lower left) you can limit ...


7

I found an old version on HebrewBooks. The print isn't very clear, though. Here's a sample page. (Note: One side of the book has the actual Mikra, and the other side has the Targum.)


6

In Ashkenazi cantillation, the demarcation of the end of a recitation unit is technically no different than the end of any other verse vis a vis the cantillation marks themselves. There is therefore no strict requirement for them to be pronounced differently. However, it is a widespread custom that the concluding words of a recitation unit (whether a ...


6

In a clause ending in segolta, the dichotomy is marked by a zarka, if in the first, second, or third word away from segolta. If the dichotomy occurs further away, then it is marked by revia or pashta, and then the second minor dichotomy (in the intervening clause, from that revia until the segolta) is marked by the zarka. However, on musical grounds, if the ...


6

To expand on Joel's answer, you would be able to determine the correct cantillation by determining where to place the divisions and subdivisions within the verse, and once you have the divisions, there are rules determining what goes around them. (This isn't to say there is one objective way of determining where the divisions are.) To take the verse you ...


5

Indeed, in a number of places here in Israel, Tehillim are read publicly on a daily basis from Tehillim scrolls written on parchment. According to many authorities, there is also a special bracha that is to be recited prior to reading material from Ketuvim out of a parchment scroll: ברוך אתה ה' א-להינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וציונו לקרוא בכתבי הקודש (...


5

The only such 'real' (cantillation) vertical bar in the three paragraphs of "Sh'ma" appears before the word "echad" in the first pasuk. (It represents a p'sik.) (Source: two good-quality chumashim.)


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible