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22

I don't see it as a "punishment" any more than one is punished by having to read Shakespeare in his Elizabethan English, rather than in an "updated" text. It's not because the language is sacred, it's because that's the one that it was written in. After all, every translation is a commentary; are you really satisfied with limiting yourself to those composed ...


16

Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Chayos (assuming he falls under your definition of "Orthodox") discusses this in the opening section of his Iggeres Bikores. At first astounded at where Rashi conjures this information given that the implication of the gemara is that a targum existed only as far back as the time of Ezra, he concludes that perhaps what Rashi (and others ...


11

I posed this question to a tenured professor, whose PhD was in Aramaic Biblical Exegesis, and who is a published expert on several Semitic languages. This is what he wrote (edited for brevity; it was over several email exchanges over several months): Nafka minnah means the "thing that come out from it" The plural will therefore ought be "the things that ...


11

According to Tiferes Yisroel the gemara was redacted multiple times by Ravina and Rav Ashi. The reformatted the words to make them more contemporary. The Masechtos they didn't get around to have uncommon words. But apparently even they didn't pull off a complete switcharoo. Over those centuries Latin and other languages were interpolated. But no complete ...


9

As I learned in the various Aramaic language classes I took in Revel, the yud in these cases is silent, and only exists to show the plurality. The parallel is to Hebrew, where the yud appears after the segol, but is also entirely unpronounced. For example in אֲבוֹתֶיךָ, it is to be pronounced avotecha, not avoteycha.


8

The entire prayer, except for the last line, is in Aramaic. צלי, צלא, or צלו are different constructs of the word meaning "pray". צלותהון means "their prayers". As for the root, I believe it is likely correct that it is צלא, though a part of me wants to go digging in my old Aramaic text books to rule out the possibility that it is צלי. I have never heard ...


7

From the Ohr Somayach "Ask the Rabbi" site: We see evidence that Adam spoke Hebrew because he gave Eve two names, each of which makes sense only in Hebrew. He called her isha (woman) because "she was taken from ish (man)," and he called her Chava (Eve) because "she was to be Mother of all chai (life)." The very name Adam is from the Hebrew word ...


7

I'm not sure what you mean by "peley", but I imagine that the phrase you are hearing as "navamina" is actually "hava amina," which means "what one would have thought". For example, the Gemara might state a fact that seems obvious, and the person leading the shiur might ask, "What's the hava amina?" In other words, why did the gemara have to say that? What ...


7

Aramaic is actually one of the biblical languages (Daniel, Ezra/Nehemia) and even has words in the Pentateuch (e.g. "ygar sahadutha" by the treaty of Lavan and Yaakov). The Maharal interprets the unique significance of Aramaic and advocates that shnayim mikra v'echad targum specifically employ Targum Onkelos for this reason. (In seeming contrast, the gemara ...


7

It literally means "that I am afraid." "לולא דמסתפינא"--"were it not that I am afraid" is a common rabbinic phrase typically signaling a novel interpretation which the author is not confident enough in to overturn precedent with. The root is "ספי," meaning "fear." The suffix "נא" with the prefix "דמ" means "that I am." "ת" is because the construction is ...


7

Radak says that the verse (except the initial "tell them thus") is what Jeremiah was telling the Jews outside Israel to tell the Gentiles there — which would of course be in Aramaic. And the "tell them thus" is in Aramaic to keep the entire verse one language. He doesn't comment on the issue of 25:27.


7

You can find this in Jastrow under צְנַע.


7

According to Wikipedia: Sirach is the Greek form of the family name Sira. It adds the letter Chi, an addition like that in Hakel-dama-ch in Acts 1:19. According to Da'at Mikra on Ezra 2:61, footnote 103: פירוש השם הקוץ כמשמעו: קוץ. והשווה אליו את השם בן-סירא, שאף הוא כנראה נגזר מלשון סירים - קוצים. Translation: The meaning of the name "Hakotz" ...


7

In my book Lashon HaKodesh: History, Holiness, & Hebrew (Mosaica Press, 2015), on page 232 I wrote: This idea comes up again in another, closely related, discussion. According to Kabbalah, on each day of the seven-day Sukkos festival, one of seven historical Jewish forefathers “visits” all the Jews’ sukkos as a spiritual guest known as Ushpizin (...


6

I am rather surprised at the answers here. There is nothing wrong with learning gemoro in English. But the fact is, it was written in Aramaic. Anyone who has learned meforshim will tell you that each word is 'counted'. There are no superfluous words. Every word contains a chiddush! No one can write like that today, so the English translation is not like the ...


6

This is found in Shaarei Teshuva ch. 84 לרבינו האי ז"ל וששאלתם צורב"א מרבנן הוא כמו צרב'ת השחין דבר חם המתחמם באשה של תורה האי צורבא מרבנן דרתח אורייתיה קא מרתחא ליה שנאמר הלא כה דברי כאש ד"א צורבא מרבנן קשה בערבי קורין לחטים הקשות חנטא צריבא (צ"ל מנוגה) (מובהק) נגדו בערו גחלי אש ותרגם מזיו יקריה מבהקין גרסינן בשקלים תבוא מארה לאשה שיש לה בעל ואינה ...


6

I don't know if this will satisfy you but your siddur is following what the Arizal says to do, brought by the Mishnah Berurah. Rema 51:7 וְכוֹפְלִין פָּסוּק כָּל הַנְּשָׁמָה תְּהַלֵּל יָהּ לְפִי שֶׁהוּא סוֹף פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָה (טוּר) וְכֵן פָּסוּק ה' יִמְלֹךְ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד (אַבּוּדַרְהַם)‏ And we say the verse "And we shall praise Hashem" at ...


5

My fellow yeshiva bachur studied Aramaic intensely, and could hold a fluent conversation (if he had anybody to speak with). He said it should be אוֹרִייַתָא.


5

Considering that both the current Sephardi and Ashkenazi rites came from the Siddur Rav Amram Gaon a copy of his siddur with Haggada was printed in 1921. According to various sources Jewish Viritual Library Jewish Agency There was no codified nusach before then. So that would make Rav Amram Gaon the codefier of the Haggadah and his Hagadah written around ...


5

The root of the word is צלי, which means "to turn" or "incline", and which has the sense of "pray" in many passages. For the former, see the Targum on Psalm 102:12 (where it corresponds to the Hebrew word of root נטה), and for the latter see Targum Onkelos on Genesis 12:8 (where it corresponds to the Hebrew word of root קרא). When it means "pray", it is ...


5

See the Aruch on the entry for פרק, which cites תהילים קלו:כד : וי*פרק*נו מצרינו "And hath delivered us from our adversaries" Thus, the word is not Aramaic.


5

The Maharal Teferes Yisroel 65 says that the meaning of Onkelos from Sinai is that the content and meaning of the Targum is in accordance with the tradition from the prophets and not his own innovation. It seems very difficult to understand Rashi as intending anything else, since Rashi writes: אונקלוס תרגם לשון מוקש. ואני אומר שלא חש לדקדק בלשון Onkelos ...


5

The word "peley" is probably פלא, which means it is a "wonder" or something amazing or incredible. It often refers to something being very surprising in its novelty. I assume Daniel is correct about "navamina"


5

SEE TOSFOS YOM_TOV on this mishnah HERE. והא דאמר בלשון תרגום עיין סוף מכילתין: - See my comments on 5:22 for why this mishna uses Aramaic. He sends to his comments HERE הפוך בה והפוך בה וכו' פי' הר"ב בתורה. וכתב במד"ש בשם רבינו אפרים שלפי שדברי תורה הן צורך גדול לבני אדם. היה אומר בלשון ארמי. שהיו הכל מכירין בו כשעלו מבבל וכן שנינו לעיל דלא ...


4

Several of your questions are answered in "Vedibarta Bam" on Pirkey Avos. 1. Why is it in Aramaic? Hillel used the Aramaic, the vernacular, in expressing this important belief in retributive justice, so that it would be understood by the masses. He felt it important for them to know that if for any reason whatsoever a murderer or evil-doer is not ...


4

There is a kuntress (pamphlet / small thin paperback book) called Aiding Talmud Study put together by Rabbi Aryeh Carmell. Included within is a concise summary of many points of the Dikduk/Grammar of the Aramaic of the Talmud Babli. I'm not sure whether or not it is still in print, but this is without a doubt an incredible resource for Torah learning that ...


4

see the Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:9-10: ט השלג והברד אין מרסקין אותם דהיינו לשברם לחתיכות דקות כדי שיזובו מימיו אבל נותן הוא לתוך כוס של יין או מים והוא נימח מאיליו ואינו חושש וכן אם הניחם בחמה או כנגד המדורה ונפשרו מותרים: י מותר לשבר הקרח כדי ליטול מים מתחתיו: There are three words being used in these two halachos: שלג, ברד and קרח. שלג and ברד ...


4

The yiddish word bavoren/bavorenin as in: Rashi already bavorened that kasha (question). it would translate to: Rashi preempted that question (by stating something that resolves the potential question, without actually specifying that he intends to answer a question). (In my Yiddish dictionary, it's translated as "a security" - in this context, it means ...


4

Actually, it seems that the spoken language of the time was Aramaic. Even in the Mishna, written while the Jewish people were still in Israel, often when document are quoted, it is usually in Aramaic. Consider, for example, Megillas Taanis, which was written as a calendar of sorts for the nation at large, written by early Tannaim (Shabbos 13a) and ...


4

A Google search revealed this Wikisource entry בעל התפילה, ר' יונתן שטנצל מספר על שיר מיוחד ששמע מסבו הגאון רבי משה הלוי לינשה, זצ"ל נוסח מיוחד עתיק, של אחד מי יודע בארמית שהיו נוהגים לשיר בפסח בחצרות חסידי רוזין, סקווער, סדיגורא, בעיר קישינוב בבסרביה My translation: The chazan Rabbi Jonathan Shtenzel tells of an ancient version of a special ...


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