23

I don't see it as a "punishment" any more than one is punished by having to read Shakespeare in his Elizabethan English, rather than in an "updated" text. It's not because the language is sacred, it's because that's the one that it was written in. After all, every translation is a commentary; are you really satisfied with limiting yourself to those composed ...


12

The term "pharisaical" is offensive to many Jews (me included) because it denigrates some of our most respected rabbis. When Jews think of Pharisees, they think of the sect at the end of the Second Temple period (circa 0 CE) that became the basis for rabbinic Judaism. This group could be contrasted with other parties of the day such as Zealots (who wanted a ...


11

Usually if English-speaking Jews want a translation of the Jewish Bible they'll use a Jewish translation. As for exposure to the other part of "the Bible", i.e. the New Testament, my guess is some Jews who believe in extra exposure will have read bits of it in a survey course or the like. There's a huge range of degrees to which Jews are exposed to general ...


11

It is inexact to say that the Pharisees were a "small sect". Most common Jews followed the teachings of the rabbinic Pharisees, as opposed to those of other sects like Sadducees (see Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews 8:10:5,6). Modern talmudic/rabbinic Jews (including most frequent users of this site) consider themselves as following in the tradition of the ...


11

According to Tiferes Yisroel the gemara was redacted multiple times by Ravina and Rav Ashi. The reformatted the words to make them more contemporary. The Masechtos they didn't get around to have uncommon words. But apparently even they didn't pull off a complete switcharoo. Over those centuries Latin and other languages were interpolated. But no complete ...


11

Indeed it does! One source in Tanach that illustrates this is Iyov 33:33: אִם־אַ֭יִן אַתָּ֥ה שְֽׁמַֽע־לִ֑י הַ֝חֲרֵ֗שׁ וַאֲאַלֶּפְךָ֥ חׇכְמָֽה׃ If not, hearken thou unto me; Hold thy peace, and I will teach thee wisdom. (JPS translation) Metzudos and Ralbag translate it this way here, and and I see no dissenters. Metzudos references Iyov 15:5 and Mishlei ...


10

If you search Google for "Mrs. * ZT-L", you'll find many instances of this honorific used for couples, and a few for women. Here are some examples of it used for women by various Jewish news or public relations outlets: BaltimoreJewishLife.com regrets to inform the community of the petirah of Mrs. Chaya Bobrowsky, zt’l, grandmother of Reb Yoni Adler. - "...


10

Biblical Hebrew. The verse says that Adam named Eve a "woman" (ishah) because she was created from man (ish). Noting the fact that the two words, in Hebrew, actually are related, Rashi (to that verse) comes to the conclusion that the world must have been created using Hebrew. He's actually quoting the Midrash (Bereishis Rabbah 18:4), which continues with the ...


10

אוקימתא (from להקים - to put up) is putting a statement in a specific more elaborate way. In short, when there are two (or more) contradicting sources that bring seemingly opposite opinions, Ukimta is used to limit each statement's application to a specific, non-overlapping situation that eliminates the contradiction. For example, Brochos 45b: תני חדא ...


9

Firstly, the צמח דוד, referred to in another answer, was actually first printed in 1592. Secondly, the first source I've found is מכילתא דרבי ישמעאל; the term can also be found in סמ"ג, in ספר חסידים, in Maharsha, and in numerous other seforim. On the other hand, the incidence of this term is not particularly frequent. If we replace 'Zionism' with 'Modern ...


9

It's a Yiddish abbreviation for Kein Ayin Hora - or in Hebrew Bli Ayin Hara. Simply stated without the evil eye; we're not discussing [something] in order to get [it] punished due to our jealousy.


9

The ibn Ezra is almost certainly referring to the Nabatean Agriculture, a work that was widely cited by many rishonim (medieval authorities), most notably the Rambam. (Ibn Ezra appears to have erroneously believed that the work was originally written in Egyptian.)


8

Do English-speaking Jews read the Bible in English, or is that too Christian for them? First, English is not a Christian language. If anything, it's a pagan language, but really it's just a language. There are many translations of the Bible into English. Most are explicitly Christian. A handful are scholarly works (e.g., Everett Fox's translation). ...


8

The substitutions come from censorship of printing over the years. Christian censors were generally more comfortable with עכו"ם - meaning worshiper of stars and constellations, as those Christian censors felt it did not include them. It is not really known in many cases what the original term of the text was due to this censorship, but now that we no longer ...


8

I don't know if it counts as a study, but how about a relevant textbook? The book Biblical Hebrew for Students of Modern Israeli Hebrew looks like it will help you. It's used in the rabbinic program at Hebrew Union College and probably other places (though I only have first-hand knowledge of HUC). Several non-yeshiva programs I'm aware of start by ...


8

Aramaic is actually one of the biblical languages (Daniel, Ezra/Nehemia) and even has words in the Pentateuch (e.g. "ygar sahadutha" by the treaty of Lavan and Yaakov). The Maharal interprets the unique significance of Aramaic and advocates that shnayim mikra v'echad targum specifically employ Targum Onkelos for this reason. (In seeming contrast, the gemara ...


8

There are several instances in rabbinic literature where the rabbinic author mentions a deceased female relative and uses the appellation "zatzal". Here are two examples: R. Moshe Sofer refers to his wife with the appellation "zatzal" in a letter printed in Likutei Teshuvot Chatam Sofer (michtavim siman 9): ומפני זה גם אנכי לא בקשתי ממנו ...


8

The following taxonomy of kinds of halachic ruling was culled from the Rambam, Hilkhos Mamrim ch. 2, and includes thoughts learned at a shi’ur given by R’ Yonasan Sachs (who was then of RIETS, now of Lander's College and is still rabbi at the Agudath Israel of Passaic-Clifton). You only asked about the difference in definition and application of no.s 2 &...


8

אֵלֶּה is a demonstrative pronoun, the plural of the singular demonstrative pronouns זֶה‎ and זֹאת‎ (masculine and feminine respectively). הָאֵלֶּה is the same word, but with the definite article attached to it. הֵם is the third person masculine singular pronoun, the plural of הוּא‎, and הָהֵם is likewise the same word with the definite article attached to ...


7

Quick answer: Yes and no. Any religious or doctrinal aspects of a kesubah itself cannot be enforced under American laws because of Constitutional issues involving the free exercise and establishment clauses to the First Amendment. However, courts have and can enforce strictly secular sections of kesubahs or separate secular agreements between a Jewish ...


7

Radak says that the verse (except the initial "tell them thus") is what Jeremiah was telling the Jews outside Israel to tell the Gentiles there — which would of course be in Aramaic. And the "tell them thus" is in Aramaic to keep the entire verse one language. He doesn't comment on the issue of 25:27.


7

The Midrash Rabba (Bamidbar 19:3) tells us the story of Adam naming the animals: ויחכם מכל האדם, מאדם הראשון, מה היתה חכמתו את מוצא כשבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם נמלך במלאכי השרת, אמר להם נעשה אדם בצלמנו, אמרו לפניו (תהלים ח') מה אנוש כי תזכרנו, אמר להם, אדם שאני רוצה לבראות חכמתו מרובה משלכם, מה עשה כינס כל בהמה חיה ועוף והעבירן לפניהן, אמר להם מה שמותן של ...


7

The question is predicated on a joke which you missed or which wasn't properly explained. One of the grandsons of Esav was named Nachas, as we see in Bereishit 36:13: וְאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי רְעוּאֵל, נַחַת וָזֶרַח שַׁמָּה וּמִזָּה; אֵלֶּה הָיוּ, בְּנֵי בָשְׂמַת אֵשֶׁת עֵשָׂו. And these are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, and Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the ...


7

Deuteronomy (33:2) states: וַיֹּאמַר, ה' מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ--הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן, וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ; מִימִינוֹ, אשדת (אֵשׁ דָּת) לָמוֹ. And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, and rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, and He came from the myriads holy, at His right hand was a fiery law unto them. (...


6

Both words are Aramaic, and while etymologically distinct they have coalesced in this form and both possess (effectively) the same meaning. The information below comes from Jastrow's Talmudic dictionary, Alcalay's "Complete Hebrew-English Dictionary" and morfix.co.il: להלן has as its root the word הלן, cognate to Hebrew הלא, meaning "[over] there". הלאה, ...


6

Tzefanya 3:9 states: כי אז אהפך אל עמים שפה ברורה לקרא כלם בשם ה' לעבדו שכם אחד For then I will convert the peoples to a pure language that all of them call in the name of the Lord, to worship Him of one accord. The Metzudos there explains that "a pure language" refers to Loshon Kodesh, which even the gentiles will change to speak in when Moshaich ...


6

I am rather surprised at the answers here. There is nothing wrong with learning gemoro in English. But the fact is, it was written in Aramaic. Anyone who has learned meforshim will tell you that each word is 'counted'. There are no superfluous words. Every word contains a chiddush! No one can write like that today, so the English translation is not like the ...


6

See p. 322 of this Google book. The Hebrew abbrevaiation is יבדל"א for males and תבדל"א for females. Loose transliteration - TiBadel/YiBadel Lecha'im Arukhim meaning "May s/he live long, on the contrary". The alternate version you mentioned (tblch"t) stands for the same, except that Arukhim is switched with Tovim, meaning "good life." The expression is ...


6

The book - The Great Sanhedrin (Sidney B. Hoenig) suggests that the original term was Bais Din Hagadol,which is a Hebrew term. However, he notes that due to Greek influence the term synedrion was Hebraized to Sanhedrin,and became popular. He also explains the words dikasterion, and kriterion should have been used since its more of an exact translation of ...


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