This article, by Prof. Rivka Ulmer, might answer some of your questions... She writes (pg. 108): "Prior to the attestation in the New Testament, there is no evidence of Psalm 22 being used in a Jewish messianic context... Jewish interpretations of the Psalm identify the individual in the Psalm with a royal figure, alternatively interpreted as King David, ...
To summarize (and perhaps embellish) Prof. Yaakov Elman's The Rebirth of Omnisignificant Biblical Exegesis in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, which addresses all this at length, Hazal seemed to assume that every word in the Torah was deliberate, meaningful, and not mere stylistic flourish. However, in response to Karaism, Rav Saadya Gaon greatly ...
I have an old copy of The Jewish Observer that discusses the ban. It seems a couple comments in his translation of the Talmud implied that certain sages ruled consistently in a particular fashion (e.g. stringently) because their personality inclined in that direction. Some were worried that readers would infer that the sages were allowing their personal ...
You may be referring to a comment by the Rashash, who in turn explains a comment by Rashi on B'rachos 8a (s.v. כפיטורי בפי ושט). Rashi says:
ים אוקיינוס יש בו מקומות שאינו מקבל ברזל ומחברין לוחי הספינה ע"י חבלים ועקלים שתוחבי' בנקביו ותוקעין אותו בדוחק לפי שהם גסין כמדת הנקב
There are places in the ocean that do not tolerate iron, and ...
To quote S. from On The Main Line:
Rashi was known by Christians as Rabbi Solomon Jarchi (Yarchi) because of a mistake, the mistake being that it was thought that 1) he was from Lunel and 2) that the yud stood for ירחי, which was Hebrew for "from Lunel" (Lunel as in luna as in moon).
This mistake was so entrenched that the Chida (page 6 in linked ...
A good place to look to find refutations of Christian messianic interpretations of the bible is Sefer Nitzachon, printed in Otzar Vikuchim by Dr. J. D. Eisenstein.
This is his answer to this specific case (p. 256): The Christian claim is that Jesus was crying to G-d, his father, "Why have you abandoned me?" at the time he was being executed. But according ...
Two editions of Mishnayot I have on hand1 ascribe this commentary, the עיקר תוספות יום טוב, to R' Meshulam Katz.
This Geni page attributes Ikkar Tosafot Yom Tov to R' Meshulam Katz, and identifies him as the Av Beit Din of Lvov, who died there in 1810.
The text in the Geni page is apparently copied2 from a pedigree record included by R' Katz' great^3-...
The largest cluster of lessons is 67. This occurs in a section of commentary covering the large majority of the book of II Samuel.
Now for some more details:
We have commentaries from Gersonides on the Scriptural books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Job, Proverbs, Ruth,...
Look at the Haga'ot HaGRI"V 26 on the "Klalim B'Rashi", printed after the Mavo LaTalmud, at the end of Masechet Berachot.
דרך רש״י בהרבה מקומות לפרש המשנה כס״ד דמקשן כדי להבין המשנה כס״ד טרם בואו אל המסקנא וזהו אך דרך
רש״י לא כן שאר מפרשים תוי״ט פ״ב דפאה מ״ב
It is Rashi's way in many places to explain the Mishna according to the ...
דריש ר''ע איש ואשה זכו שכינה ביניהן לא זכו אש אוכלתן
R. Akiba expounded: When husband and wife are worthy, the Shechinah abides with them; when they are not worthy fire consumes them.
Rashi there explains:
שכינה ביניהם - שהרי חלק את שמו ושיכנו ביניהן יו"ד באיש וה"י באשה
The Shechinah abides with them - God split ...
Many laws applied to the Passover offering that do not apply to the Seder. For example, the Passover offering can only be eaten by people who are Tahor (a specific form of ritual purity). There is no requirement to be Tahor to attend a Seder nowadays.
Similarly, the Passover offering had to be eaten only by the invited members of a group. Nowadays, anyone ...
A friend of mine compiled the following list:
This edition: https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/14118 has Efodi, Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov, ibn Crescas, and Abarbanel.
This: https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/31594 is the commentary of R. Moshe Narboni.
This is the commentary of R. Shem Tov ibn Falaquera: https://beta.hebrewbooks.org/23920.
Two commentaries by R. Yosef ...
The Maharsha discusses the pig story in Chidushei Agadot at the end of Sotah, as advertised, but the comment is applied not to the portion of the Gemara on 49b where the story is told, but to the portion of the Mishna on 49a that that portion of Gemara comments on.
Here is the text of the relevant comment in the Maharsha:
בפולמוס של טיטוס כו' פרש"י שהביא ...
Some old non-allegorical commentaries on Shir HaShirim:
Rashbam's commentary (translation) separates the allegorical and non-allegorical comments.
R' Avraham ibn Ezra wrote his commentary in three levels: one lexical, one non-allegorical, and one allegorical.
There are two anonymous commentaries here given under the headings פירוש מחכמי צרפת that are non-...
The Ohr hachaim on the beginning of bereshit quotes the Talmud Chagigah 12a. There it lists 10 things were created in the first day, and one of them is Choshech.
ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב עשרה דברים נבראו ביום ראשון ואלו הן שמים וארץ תהו ובהו אור וחשך רוח ומים מדת יום ומדת לילה שמים וארץ דכתיב בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ תהו ובהו דכתיב והארץ היתה תהו ובהו ...
Rav Sa'adya Gaon explains in his commentary to Psalms (51:7) that David was not making a statement about the state of Man. Rather, he was speaking personally; that he was so ashamed, that he felt as though he were conceived in sin. He writes (as translated into Hebrew by R. Qafih):
והרי אני מרוב כלימתי כאלו בעון חוללתי
For I, from my great ...
David's sin was a personal matter, Saul's was national.
King Saul was personally commanded to eradicate Amalek. This was a national interest which was under his authority as king. When he sinned and didn't obey, it was in his position as king, and so God punished him as a king (i.e. by losing his monarchy).
King David sinned in something everyone was ...
In Yeshurin 21 Page 65 Rabbi Ezra Shaivet says that there are those who attribute it to רבי עובדיה בן דוד, however it is still unclear whether this is accurate. He does not indicate who it is that attributes this to the רבי עובדיה בן דוד.
"Rashi was also called Jarchi, derived from the name of the city in which he lived, "Lunel." Jerach being the Hebrew, as lune is the French for moon."
~taken from this webpage.
~The Chida brings this in Shem HaGedolim, in his entry on Rashi (page 6 of this pdf)
Rambam states explicitly in the first paragraph of his introduction to Sefer Hamitzvot that the Commentary to the Mishnah came first:
After having completed our previous well-known work wherein we included a commentary to the whole Mishnah – our goal in that work
having been satisfied with the explanation of the substance of each
and every Halacha in ...
The difficulty with your question is as follows:
In those days (almost) everything was oral. For example we have lots of things the Hillel said (he lived around then), but they were not written down then - they were written down later. So do they count? They are certainly commentary, but they were only written down later. The Talmud is full of things that ...
It's called שערי צבי - "Shaarey Tzvi" written by Rav Tzvi Rotter shlit"a (he is the son of the Shaaray Aharon). The book can be found here and can be partially viewed here.
Hat tip to sam regarding another book with the same premise, ילקוט מלכו של עולם - "Yalkut Malko Shel Olam", information about it can be found here.
The author of בכור שור is Rabbi Alexander Sender Schor (1673-1737), author of Simlah Chadasha.
He wrote בכור שור on many masechtos of Shas, including Kiddushin. All of בכור שור may be found in this sefer; the commentary to Kiddushin starts on page 444.
I checked the first comment on דף ב, and it seems to match the commentary quoted in the ילקוט מפרשים (in ...
Hidabroot (here) writes
It is a well-known fact that Rabbi Yaakov [Ben Asher, the Baal Haturim] wrote his entire commentary
on the Torah in one night, orally, although no reliable source has
which is what you might have heard, although they don't connect it to his wedding night.
Thanks to @msh210, I found an official source in the ...
R. David Conforte identifies (Korei Hadorot 28a) the author of Megillat Esther as R. Isaac de Leon, a student of R. Isaac Kampaton. R. Hayyim Joseph David Azulai, however, (Shem Hagedolim Vol. I entry 333 for the letter Yod) raised several arguments against this identification and concluded that the author of Megillat Esther was R. Isaac Leon (where Leon ...
It's in his commentary to Ex. 27:20:
מאמר הובא בס' זוהר חדש כי ד' גליות של ישראל כל א' מהם נגאלו ממנו בזכות אחד... והד' תלוי בזכות משה, ולזה נתארך הגלות, כי כל עוד שאין עוסקים בתורה ובמצות אין משה חפץ לגאול עם בטלנים מן התורה
...a statement in Zohar Chadash, that the Jews were redeemed from each of their four exiles in the merit of another person... The ...