Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange
Join us in building a kind, collaborative learning community via our updated Code of Conduct.

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

0
votes
0answers
12 views

English equivalent of לשון חיים [duplicate]

In לשון חיים, there is an introduction of about 45 pages of general grammar rules of lashon kodesh. Are there any English equivalents of that material presented there (the לשון חיים is written in ...
-1
votes
0answers
26 views

Does החזק refer to a dagesh chazak in the Shulchan Aruch Siman 61:23 and Mishneh Torah Krias Shema Chapter 2?

I want to know if the Shulchan Aruch and Mishneh Torah are referring to a letter with a "dagesh chazak" which must be germinated or a elongated consonant when it writes "החזק" or it it referring to a "...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

Neḥemia 8:7 - Six pazers?

Neḥemia 8:7 וְיֵשׁ֡וּעַ וּבָנִ֡י וְשֵׁרֵ֥בְיָ֣ה ׀ יָמִ֡ין עַקּ֡וּב שַׁבְּתַ֣י ׀ הֽוֹדִיָּ֡֡ה מַעֲשֵׂיָ֡ה קְלִיטָ֣א עֲזַרְיָה֩ יוֹזָבָ֨ד חָנָ֤ן פְּלָאיָה֙ וְהַלְוִיִּ֔֔ם מְבִינִ֥ים אֶת־הָעָ֖ם ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Yehi Ratzon for a Choleh — singular or plural

In the Amida, the bracha of Refa'einu, there is an additional supplication one may add and name a sick person. The text is the same as what is on this card. In my siddurim, I have seen the request in ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Learning Dikduk on Tish’ah B’Av

Is it permissible to learn dikduk of Biblical Hebrew on tish’ah b’av or is it considered learning Torah? If a grammar or book one is using to learn dikduk quotes pesukim or phrases from תנ״ך to show ...
8
votes
1answer
86 views

Vowels in tefilat Hashachar

In tefilat "leoylom yehe Odom... " there is a statement ָקַדֵּש אֶת שִמְךָ בְּעוֹלָמֶך Instinctively my tendency is to read beoylomecho with a shevo below the letter beys. But in siddur Tehilas ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Bil’am cursing terminology - א.ר.ר, ק.ב.ב and ק.ל.ל

Within the story of Balak and Bil’am I noticed a shift in words for curse and cursing. In Numbers 22:6 Balak asks Bil’am to curse him the Israelites ארה-לי, of which the root seems to be ארר. Numbers ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

הם (heym) vs. המה (heyma)

Why does the Torah use the word המה - HEYMA - in these 19 psukim (20 times) instead of the more common and simple form הם - HEYM ? בראשית ו ד בראשית ז יד בראשית מב לה בראשית מד ג שמות יט יג שמות ...
4
votes
1answer
75 views

Mil'al vs. Milra on “Lamah”

In a few places in the Torah, the word למה is pronounced מלעיל (accent on 1st syllable) and in other places מלרע (accent on 2nd syllable.) I viewed Bemidbar 11:11 which has both in the same verse. ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת? [duplicate]

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת in Megillas Ester? In Ashkenazi pronunciation this makes a difference because the first is read as "Es" and the second is read as "Eys."
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Hebrew grammar according to the Rabbanim

Is there a comprehensive book which collects all opinions from Rishonim all the way down to our times concerning Hebrew grammar rules?
7
votes
0answers
122 views

What are the rules for sh'va na?

What is the full list of rules for when to pronounce a sh'va (i.e. na) during tefillah and keriat hatorah? When I was in school, I remember being taught that a sh'va was na in the following 5 cases (...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Is the word “Nischazeik” or “Nischazak”?

When completing an entire book of the Torah (ex. Bereishis), it is customary in some communities to recite the words חזק חזק ונתחזק which is translated out to "be strong, be strong, and let us be ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Nikkud for Halleluyah

I was learning to chant Tehillim in Israel last year. The Syrians have a tradition for how to chant psalms and they base their tradition off the Aleppo Codex. In their siddurim, Halleluyah is written ...
2
votes
2answers
53 views

Why is there varying vowels on proper nouns in Megillas Ester?

In Megillas Ester, several proper nouns (such as Mordechai, and Shushan) use komatz and patach interchangeably. In sefardi pronunciation this does not make much of a difference, but in ashkenazi ...
6
votes
1answer
79 views

Why is מקראי קדש not נסוג אחור?

In Parshat Emor, Vayikra 23:2: דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם מוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם מִקְרָאֵ֣י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם מוֹעֲדָֽי׃ And also 23:37: ...
3
votes
0answers
21 views

A shevah after a Shooruk (milupim) at the beginning of word [duplicate]

This may seem like a simple question but I took a poll and asked some people I know how they pronounce the word וּנְסַפֵּר. I personally say U-N-sa-per. Others said like me and others say Un-sa-per. I ...
5
votes
2answers
87 views

Which word is said under the chuppah - זוֹ or זוּ?

The groom tells the bride under the chuppah: הרי את מקודשת לי בטבעת זו כדת משה וישראל Is the word זו pronounced with a cholam (וֹ) as in "zo" or with a shuruk (וּ) as in "zu"? I have seen both ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Are there two verses anywhere in Tanakh with the same words but different cantillation?

Are there two pesukim anywhere in Tanakh which contain exactly the same words, but which have different cantillation? I am particularly interested in cases where the different cantillation causes the ...
0
votes
2answers
95 views

Ma Nishtana question

In מה נשתנה, first it says הלילה הזה which is זכר and then it says הלילות which is נקבה. Do any commentators theorize why it switches gender?
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Different roots applied to the same verse of 2 Samuel 11:24

2 Samuel 11:24 (Westminster Leningrad Codex) reads: [וַיֹּרְאוּ כ] (וַיֹּר֨וּ ק) [הַמֹּורְאִים כ] (הַמֹּורִ֤ים ק) Two of these come from the root (ק) ירה while the other two come from the root (...
0
votes
2answers
120 views

How to pronounce ישראל - Yisroel or Yisrael? [closed]

Why do many people spell, and pronounce, the name ישראל as Yisroel, as if it had an americanized cholem? Isn't it spelled with a kamatz? Do such people still pronounce it as Yisroel in Shema?
2
votes
1answer
239 views

Dagesh at end of בראת

I noticed that in borei nefashot in the Artscroll Siddur and in the Koren Siddur the tav in word בראת has no dagesh. I was under the impression that the tav suffix for second person masculine past ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Full Kaddish - Titkabel or Titkabal? [duplicate]

There is this line in the full kaddish: ..תתקבל צלותהון but the nikkud in my siddur read Titkabel, while in another it says Titkabal; What's the difference? Which one should be used? .
1
vote
1answer
95 views

Difference in suffix regards the word Shabat

Looking at the words שבת שבתון (ex. Vayikra 23:24) and שבתות (ex. Vayikra 23:15) and there root שבת what do endings ון- and ות- indicate here? What do these suffixes mean/indicate? P.s. Are there ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

The definition of ריב and its applications?

The verb ריב is often translated as quarrel, dispute, murmer, strife or argument, which seems quite logical when looking at Bereshit 13:7 when the herdsmen were bickering about land because it couldn'...
4
votes
1answer
66 views

Difference between מלכו and מלכותו

I was wondering what the difference in meaning (and thus, in the interpretation of Pesukim in the Megillah, as well as various Pesukim in Tanach) between למלכו and למלכותו, specifically according to ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Different words for curse

I noticed in translation different words are being used to describe 'curse' 1. מארה - m'erah, curse 2. קללה - klalah, curse 3. ארר - arar, curse 4. אלה - alah, curse 5. קבב - kavav, curse... maybe ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

A heap of people and ingathering of food

Is there any connection between the word אסף (to gather, collect) and אסם (literally a barn or storehouse but could be from an unised root meaning to heap up). I wondered because there is a feast in ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

translation of vayikra

I believe the vav of vayikra is a vav hamehapeich, meaning it switches yikra from asid to avar. To that extent I heard that the correct translation would be He called, rather than "and He called" (...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Singular vs. Plural

I don't know if this is more Hebrew or if it is about biblical explication. In Malachi 1:6, the text reads וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִ֣ים אָנִי֩ which is translated (on Sefaria and cChabad) as "If I am a master" ...
13
votes
2answers
166 views

Dreamed vs. Dreaming a Dream

Posting for another friend. When does Lashon Hakodesh (throughout Tanach) use "ויחלם" (and he dreamed") by itself and when is "ויחלם חלום" ("and he dreamed a dream") used? It seems that most of the ...
4
votes
0answers
109 views

Correct pronunciation of הנתונים בצרה ובשביה

In the Tefillah of "Acheinu", we discuss our brothers who are "נתונים בצרה ובשביה". I have heard these words vowelized with a Pasach under the Beis of both terms (Batzarah Uvashivya, which would mean "...
3
votes
2answers
83 views

Throwing to vs. Throwing into the pit

I would need some help to answer a grammar question in order to understand the exact meaning a critical piece of the selling of Yosef. The Torah says in Bereshit 37:20 (from www.chabad.org): "...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Different customs regarding the blessing before lighting the menorah [duplicate]

There are varying customs as to the text of the bracha we recite before lighting the menorah. Ashkenazim generally end the blessing with the words: .לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל חֲנֻכָּה However, Hasidim ...
3
votes
2answers
133 views

What does “Yeshuos Panai” mean exactly?

I am a bit confused on the wording of Tehillim 42. Verse 6 states: :מַה־תִּֽשְׁתּ֬וֹחֲחִ֨י | נַפְשִׁי֘ וַתֶּֽהֱמִ֪י עָ֫לָ֥י הוֹחִ֣ילִי לֵֽ֖אלֹהִים כִּי־ע֥וֹד אוֹדֶ֗נּוּ יְשׁוּע֥וֹת פָּנָֽיו ...
3
votes
2answers
101 views

'עם' & 'את' based words in the story of Lot and Avram

I don't know the exact sources but I remembered some commentaries from the Malbim and Vilna Gaon which point out a difference between 'את'-based words and 'עם'-based words (both translated to mean '...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

“And I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse…” [duplicate]

"And I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse..." (translation from chabad.org) וַֽאֲבָֽרְכָה֙ מְבָ֣רֲכֶ֔יךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ֖ אָאֹ֑ר In this פָּסוּק the word for bless ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Who went with whom? Lot and Avram

Genesis 12:4 reads: Vayelech Avram... Avram went according as HaShem had sproken to him, vayelech Lot ito, and Lot went with him. But the next verse reads: Vayikach Avram.. et Lot, and Avram took Lot, ...
2
votes
2answers
157 views

Why does Rambam spell it as קרית שמע?

Throughout the Mishneh Torah, Rambam spells the term for the recitation of Shema, without an א, as קרית שמע, even though the Aleph is part of the root of the word. To my knowledge, there is no ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

nach nistar yud, followed by a yud

I noticed that the Artscroll siddur puts a line in אל-בני | ישראל at the beginning of the third parsha of Shema, which tells you not to merge the words together. Are they correct? The yud at the end ...
3
votes
0answers
48 views

Why are the Kadmonites singled out?

With my limited understanding of dikduk I don't know what the significance of the ־ symbol is. Maybe it indicates that two word should be read together? I know grammatically it turns an אֵ֖ת to an ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Does the Atnah/Etnahtah Denote Emphasis

Im learning with a new te'amim teacher. He mentioned that one cant rely on the atnah / etnahta symbol to show syllabic emphasis. He also said that the symbol never shows up on the end of a word. Can ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Does יו close a syllable? [closed]

With a word like ידיו is the final syllable closed or open? Are the final letters a closed consonant or an extension of the vowel, like a tripthong?
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Why in Hebrew masculine nouns agree with feminine numbers and vice verse? [closed]

Also in other semitic languages, see Why do feminine-looking numbers agree with masculine nouns and vice versa in Hebrew and Arabic?. As other languages seemingly stemmed from Biblical Hebrew (Loshon ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

Explanation of Kamatz vs. Patach ה הידעה

I've noticed that possukim will switch back and forth between the vowelizing of the definite article heh, sometimes multiple times within the same possuk. Is there a rule for this or an explanation in ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Dageish at the beginning of a word - pronunciation?

For those who pronounce a דגש חזק as a double letter (e.g. הַמֶּלֶךְ as הַמְמֶלֶךְ but with a שוא נח on the first מ''ם), how should a דגש חזק at the beginning of a word be pronounced (e.g. הוֹשִׁיעָה ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Hallel Grammar בתוכך vs בְּתוֹכֵכִי

Why do some chazanim pronounce בתוכך during Hallel instead of בְּתוֹכֵכִי - the way it's written in the pasuk? 116:19 בְּחַצְרוֹת, בֵּית יְהוָה-- בְּתוֹכֵכִי יְרוּשָׁלִָם: הַלְלוּ-יָהּ. In ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

What is the object of the verbs in Ya'aleh V'yavo?

(This might have to be closed/migrated as about language. I'm not sure.) In the Ya'aleh V'yavo prayer, there is an opening string of verbs. Based on what I recall of Hebrew grammar, each is written ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Torah Blessing - הַמְבֹרָךְ or הַמְּבֹרָךְ

In the blessing before the torah reading, some siddurim have הַמְּבֹרָךְ (with a dagesh in the mem) and others have הַמְבֹרָךְ. Wouldn't the hay hayedia require a dagesh in the mem thus making the ...