Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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2
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1answer
116 views

Why is there no דגש in the ת in the word “וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם”?

I am told that a בגדכפת letter takes a דגש following a closed syllable (examples of this: נִשְׁבַּ֧ע, בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ and לְנֶגְדְּכֶם֙) (i.e. ends with the letter and not the vowel), so why do words ...
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0answers
60 views

When does the rule of אתא מרחוק apply?

I was told that there is a rule that if a word has the stress מלעיל (i.e. not on the last syllable), then the first letter of the next word should have a dagesh. I can not find anywhere where this ...
1
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1answer
93 views

How is a “ד” without a דגש קל pronounced? [duplicate]

According to many books I have read, a דגש קל can only be present in the letters ב, ג, ד, כ, פ and ת. The Ashkenazi מסורה for pronunciations of the letters ג and ד without a דגש קל has been lost. I ...
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1answer
41 views

Grammar question in prayer

Why in the prayer: יי עז לעמו יתן , יי יברך את-עמו בשלום is the word יברך followed by את,? Both יברך & יתן are forms of a verb. Does anyone have any sources that address this grammar sentence ...
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51 views

When discussing the avoida of the 'bchoros', first-born, is the correct term 'bchoros' or 'bchorim'?

I think I've seen it written as 'bchoros' but since they are male shouldn't it be 'bchorim'?
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2answers
147 views

Why does Naomi talk in masculine form to her daughters-in-law?

In Rus 1:8, Naomi is telling her two daughters-in-law that they should return to their homes. וַתֹּ֤אמֶר נָעֳמִי֙ לִשְׁתֵּ֣י כַלֹּתֶ֔יהָ לֵ֣כְנָה שֹּׁ֔בְנָה אִשָּׁ֖ה לְבֵ֣ית אִמָּ֑הּ יעשה [יַ֣עַשׂ] ...
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1answer
127 views

Which part of Hebrew or textual grammar tells the reader to add to the verb in question the word “habitually”?

Which part of Hebrew or textual grammar tells the reader to add to the verb in question the word "habitually"? For example, Exodus 21:36 (Parashat Bo), Chabad translates the verb in question ...
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1answer
92 views

ולא תתורו: kadma veazla or azla-geresh?

In the third parashah of Shema' (maftir from P' Shelach) we have a divergence of cantillation on the words ולא תתורו. In R' Wolf Heidenheim (see Koren for a contempary example) these words are ...
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2answers
83 views

Is וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם in Shema with Shva Na or Shva Nach

My daughter goes to a chabad school (nusach ari?) and has been taught in class that וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם in the shema (end of first paragraph) is with a shvah na on the כְ. She also says it has the asterisk ...
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2answers
86 views

Rosh Hashanah vs Rosh Chodesh

The beginning of the Jewish year is referred to as Rosh Hashanah. The beginning of the Jewish month is called Rosh Chodesh. How come Rosh Hashanah has a "hey" (ה) in it, while Rosh Chodesh ...
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1answer
349 views

The grammatical nature of וָאִמָּלְטָה in the context of Job 1:15. How exactly did the only surviving servant “slip away”?

In Job 1:15, we read that the Sabeans fell upon and took Job's cattle and she-asses. Then they killed the young men, or servants, of Job, by the sword. Only one of these servants got away, and it is ...
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34 views

Using meteg to mark non-ultimate accented syllables

The common practice in current prayer books is to use a meteg to mark the stressed syllable in non-biblical texts if it's not the last one. The earliest edition using this method I have found is R' ...
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1answer
70 views

Malbim’s grammatical argument in Parashat Tzav

Can someone help me to understand the grammatical/ interpretive point that the Malbim is making in his commentary to Leviticus 6:21 (the entries numbered 67 and 68 on Sefaria)?
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2answers
46 views

When do you say אֶת, and when do you say אֵת? [duplicate]

How can one determine when the word "את" is pronounced with a t'zayray and when it is pronounced with a se'gol?
2
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1answer
87 views

Why are some Lameds with a flat top?

In many places in the siddur there are Lameds with a flat top, and there are some with a straight top. For example in the last הללוקה the word בצלצלי, the first lamed is with a straight top, and the ...
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1answer
78 views

Leniency in pronunciation while reading the Megillah (Iggeres)

I've heard that we are more lenient in regards to krias haMigglah than to krias haTorah (in regards to pronunciation), since the Migglah refers the itself as an Iggeres (letter). If this so, to what ...
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1answer
80 views

לָ vs. לַ vs. לְ and וָ vs. וַ vs. וְ

What are the differences in meaning between the prefix of the letter ל (lamed), when different vowels are used [i.e. לַ (patach), לָ (kumatz) and לְ (shva)]? What about variants of the usage of the ...
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1answer
57 views

What does “Bechozek Yad Hotzianu” mean?

At the end of Parshas Bo, we see the concept of "BeChozek Yad Hotzianu" 4 times, twice in connection with mitzvas t'fillin. What does "Bechozek Yad Hotzianu" really mean and what ...
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1answer
111 views

Why is the word “youth” בְּחֽוּרֹתֶ֑יךָ in the plural?

Why is the word "youth" בְּחֽוּרֹתֶ֑יךָ in Kohelet 12:1 in the plural, when the first word, the first verb in the sentence, indicates that the speaker is speaking to one person? וּזְכֹר֙ ...
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3answers
510 views

What does שליט"א stand for?

I thought that שליט"א came from the Aramaic word שליט (Ruler). But a Rabbi I told this to, pointed out that שליט"א is always written as with " , in the Middle so each the letters must ...
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2answers
706 views

How to apply the Masoretic note, “2x, once plene and once defectively” to Ruth 1:1?

In Ruth 1:1, there is a Masoretic note on שְׁפֹט which I do not understand: The picture is a little unclear, but the note says (I have highlighted the letters with a dot above them): ב חד מל וחד חס ...
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1answer
96 views

Ambiguity due to lack of punctuation

In Hungarian medieval history there's an interesting episode, when a few high ranking noblemen conspired to kill the queen. They asked the archbishop what to do, but he was hesitant to join either ...
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1answer
135 views

Similarity between atonement in Leviticus 4:20 & cover in Genesis 6:14 in terms of semantics, wording/phrasing, lettering/grammer, pronunciation?

I apologize but I do not know any Old Testament Hebrew so I'll have to rely on the responders to this post when it comes to analyzing the Old Testament Hebrew. Leviticus 4:20 (NASB 1995) 20 He shall ...
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1answer
110 views

Stressed syllable of באה

Yesterday I was looking at the text of how the incense had been prepared. In my ArtScroll book it is written: בֹּרִית כַּרְשִׁינָה לָמָה הִיא בָֽאָה A bit later it says: אַחַת לְשִׁשִּׁים אוֹ ...
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83 views

How do you pronounce this word in Onkelos

This word in Onkelos bereshis 41:50. Is the word pronounced “di y’lidat,” with the second letter of the word taking the sh’va na sound, or is the second letter of the word silent, with the word ...
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25 views

What's the purpose of first yod in Eideihen - Avodah Zarah 2a

עידיהן Referred to in Talmud (Avodah Zarah 2a) which is derived from Isaiah 43:9 have twoי (yods) whereas the one in Isaiah 43:9 is without the first yod ( עדיהם).The enlarged letters (witness) in ...
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79 views

Why is there no דגש in the כ״ף of הכזונה in פרשת וישלח לד:לא?

I know that the rule of ה״א התימה is that it usually takes a הֲ unless it precedes a שוא, such as here in הַכְזוֹנָה, where it then just takes a הַ and the following letter doesn't have a דגש in order ...
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1answer
202 views

Why are Hebrew cardinal numbers switched to the other gender after the first two?

When counting in Hebrew, the first two cardinal numbers are in the correct gender, but all subsequent numbers seem to be in the opposite gender? For example: Feminine Numbers are: אַחַתֹ-שְתַּיִםֹ-...
3
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1answer
171 views

Penultimate stress of אתה

By default, the world אַתָּה (you) has a final stress. If I am correct (and the concordance as well), out of 172 occurrences 159 satisfies this rule in the Torah (92%).* However, if this word is in a ...
3
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5answers
197 views

Letter צד“י or צדי”ק?

One of the letters of the hebrew alphabet is the letter 'צ'. When I was taught the hebrew alphabet, this letter was introduced as 'צד"י'. I believe this to be the generally accepted name of the ...
3
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1answer
201 views

Why the weird spelling of וַאֲבָרֶכְכָ֛ה in Breisheet 27:7?

Statement: In Breisheet Parashas Toldos, it says הָבִ֨יאָה לִּ֥י ... וַאֲבָרֶכְכָ֛ה לִפְנֵ֥י ה' לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹתִֽי: . Question: Why is the word וַאֲבָרֶכְכָ֛ה spelled in such an unusual manner instead of ...
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0answers
84 views

What is the rationale for only marking certain letters with sheva, when they are the last letter in a word?

In printed and manuscript editions of Tanach, I've noticed that a sheva on the final letter of a word is almost never marked, and is meant to be inferred. The two exceptions I've come across are: A ...
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52 views

What is a systematic guide to dikduk?

What is an accessible but thorough work on Hebrew grammar for people who already know how to read Tanakh and mefarshim, but would like a more systematic understanding of the grammatical discussions? ...
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1answer
32 views

Is it חִסָרון or חֶסרון?

In this Lechem Mishnah on the Rambam in Hilchos Deos says "ונראה לפרש דקצה ראשון הוא החסרון וקצה אחרון התוספת". Is it correct to put the nekudos as חִסָרון or חֶסרון?
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1answer
188 views

Are there any cases in the Tanakh where the form of the word could ambiguously have either the root יָרֵא (fear) or רָאָה (see)?

Abijah originally asked this question in Biblical Hermeneutics (https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/52502/translating-forms-of-yirah-as-fear-or-seeing). Abijah stated how the question ...
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0answers
35 views

Should one read the story of the cursing of Canaan in a different way?

The verses of Genesis 9: 24-27 are generally believed to be part of a larger context, including the verses 9: 20-23. In other words, that these verses together tell one (a complete) story. But what if ...
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2answers
137 views

Where in the Tanakh, on a peshat level, is “Yetzer HaTov” derived?

Where in the Tanakh, on a peshat level, is "Yetzer HaTov" derived? Rashi seems to derive "Yetzer HaRa" from Genesis 8:21 (because the words "yetzer" and "ra" ...
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1answer
69 views

Final Pay ף ??? - Exists or Not? [duplicate]

Just confirming that there doesn't exist anywhere in Tanach a final Pay (not Fay but rather a ף with a Dagesh). If so, it is a fascinating that it doesn't.
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1answer
48 views

Plural and singular in Shmuel 2:24:14

In Shmuel 2:24:14 it says: "David said to Gad, “I am in great distress. Let us fall into the hands of the LORD, for His compassion is great; and let me not fall into the hands of men.”" ...
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28 views

Isaiah 52:14 what does it say?

I’ve some trouble with translating and understanding Isaiah 52:14. The words me’ish (מאיש) and mi’bnei adam (מבני אדם) to me seem to translate: from/out of man (like in Genesis 2:23 or Psalm 18:49) ...
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1answer
216 views

Does the Hebrew word “Torah” originate from BOTH the words “Hora’ah” (meaning, Teaching) and “Orah” (meaning, Light)?

Does the Hebrew word "Torah" originate from BOTH the words “Hora’ah” (meaning, Teaching) and “Orah” (meaning, Light)? The accurate meaning of “Torah” is twofold. Firstly it comes from the ...
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1answer
107 views

The second yod in Mechiyael

Bereishit 4:18 contains the word: וּמְחִיָּיאֵ֗ל There is no vowel under the second yod, so I assume that it is not pronounced at all. What is its function? Is it a mater lectionis? Is a yod ever ...
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0answers
66 views

Prophecies about past or future events?

Why are some prophecies described as if they already happend, as if they occurred in the past, while at the time/moment the prophecy is spoken it all still has to take place and talks about the future....
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0answers
63 views

Was there a traditional Hebrew equivalent of a Sator Square? [duplicate]

It seems a lot of old Latin stuff liked this Sator Square, five five-letter words that form a palindrome: S A T O R A R E P O T E N E T O P E R A R O T A S Was there ever a Hebrew equivalent to this? ...
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0answers
23 views

Why does Al Chet not have the definite article, i.e., Al HAchet?

Since the phrase is translated, "for the sin," and it isn't smichut, why is there no definite article?
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0answers
140 views

Chirik: the long and short of it

My understanding is that (according to at least some Hebrew grammarians) a chirik is classified as a short vowel if it is part of a closed unstressed syllable, and otherwise it is long. A 'short' ...
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0answers
28 views

Smichut or Noun and adjective in Lashon remiya (Tehilim 120)

In Tehilim 120:2 and 3 we find lashon remiya (לשון רמייה) where lamed has qamets: יְֽהוָ֗ה הַצִּ֣ילָה נַ֭פְשִׁי מִשְּׂפַת־שֶׁ֑קֶר מִלָּשׁ֥וֹן רְמִיָּֽה׃ מַה־יִּתֵּ֣ן לְ֭ךָ וּמַה־יֹּסִ֥יף לָ֗ךְ ...
4
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1answer
140 views

Isaiah 40:4 — is the word pronounced “geh” or “gay”?

כָּל גֶּיא יִנָּשֵׂא (In Isaiah 40:4, and therefore also the Haftarah for Nachamu, just after Tisha B'Av.) It's a segol under the gimmel so I'd say "geh" ... but then there's a yud, but it's ...
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0answers
30 views

He Hayedyia before the letter Chet. Segol or Patach?

in Achare Mot the verses say: וְהִקְרִ֖יב אֶת־הַשָּׂעִ֥יר הֶחָֽי׃ כא וְסָמַ֨ךְ אַהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֣י יָדָ֗ו עַ֣ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר֮ הַחַי֒ The first occurence on the end of a verse is Hechay, and ...
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0answers
71 views

Gendered text for Gomel

related to Bentching Ha-Gommel after a Birth Do women bentch gomel less often? According to some opinions, a woman can say the thanksgiving blessing ("bentch gomel") The text that one says ...

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