Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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1answer
53 views

Why use different adjectives in Devarim 9:1 and Devarim 9:14?

א שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַתָּה עֹבֵר הַיּוֹם אֶת-הַיַּרְדֵּן, לָבֹא לָרֶשֶׁת גּוֹיִם גְּדֹלִים וַעֲצֻמִים מִמֶּךָּ--עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וּבְצֻרֹת, בַּשָּׁמָיִם Deutoronomy 9:1 Hear, O Israel: thou art to ...
7
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4answers
267 views

How should I pronounce עם in עם הדומה לחמור?

I was surprised to hear a lecturer pronounce the word עם in the phrase עם הדומה לחמור with a חיריק. I know that all of my teachers pronounced it with a פתח. When I pointed out the גמרא at the end of ...
2
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0answers
82 views

Secondary stress after the main stress in פדנה

Rashi notes multiple times that the -ל prefix can be substituted by a ה- suffix like in Bereishit 28:2: ק֥וּם לֵךְ֙ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָ֔ם בֵּ֥יתָה בְתוּאֵ֖ל אֲבִ֣י אִמֶּ֑ךָ וְקַח־לְךָ֤ מִשָּׁם֙ אִשָּׁ֔ה ...
5
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0answers
126 views

What is the proper voweling (Nikud) for Metatron?

I have seen many variations of this and wonder if anyone could tell me which is the most correct? These variations include: מֶטָטְרוֹן‎‎ (Meṭāṭ'rōn) מְטַטְרוֹן‎ (Măṭaṭ'rōn) מֵיטַטְרוֹן‎ (Mēyṭaṭ'rōn) ...
1
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1answer
259 views

What is the difference between Almah vs. Ha-Almah?

My understanding is that adding "Ha-" at the beginning of a noun in Hebrew is the same as adding "The" to the beginning of a noun in English. In other words, it means you're ...
2
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0answers
25 views

'Anshei' vs 'B'nei'

Ezra 2 contains a big list of the size of different families. However, some of the verses (eg 16, 17, 18) introduce those they count as בני, and some of the verses (eg 22, 23, 27) introduce those they ...
2
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1answer
42 views

Daniel 9:12 k’ri-k’tiv

Do any commentators or other sources address the rationale of דבריו becoming דברו in Daniel 9:12? I’ve so far been unable to find any explanation for this.
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38 views

Are the words אנש and איש related?

Could someone help me out: Rabbi Shlomo Aharon Wertheimer (1866-1935) writes that the root of enosh is ish, with the additional NUN to serve as a diminutive. Now I would like to know if the Hebrew ...
2
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0answers
46 views

What is the difference between "גזרה רעה" "גזרה קשה"

Is there a difference between the concept of the Hebrew words of "גזרה רעה" an evil decree versus a "גזרה קשה" a difficult decree? See Machzor Rosh HaShana on the annulment of ...
1
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1answer
82 views

"Constantly and forever and ever" in Maariv davening

In Maariv prayer we say "אל חי וקים תמיד ימלוך עלינו לעולם ועד" in the first long Brachah. I'm aware of the concept of the double לשון of לעולם ועד (i.e. forever and ever), but how does that ...
3
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0answers
88 views

Explanation of number shifts in the Tanach

In many places in Tanach, the grammatical number (plural or singular) shifts. One famous example has to do with the rocks that Yaakov put under his head. When he woke, the "rock" is referred ...
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0answers
41 views

Chazak Chazak VeNitChazak or VeNitChazek [duplicate]

At the end of each book we used to say: Chazak Chazak VeNitChazek. The source of this term appears in שמואל ב פרק-י when יוֹאָב split the army and gave half to אַבְשַׁי to attack from another side. ...
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2answers
169 views

Anachronisms in the torah?

Are there good answers to anachronisms in the torah? I've been studying this subject for a while and I don't think a good answer for that an example would be Gen 14:14 And Abram heard that his ...
3
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3answers
147 views

Why is it אלו הן הלוקין rather than אלו הן הנלקין?

Looking for an explanation as to why the פעל form is used rather than נפעל. Instead of “These are the ones who hit” I would’ve expected it to be “these are the ones who are hit.” One thought would be ...
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1answer
136 views

Please translate Gemara - Aramaic word מקני

In בבא מציעא daf 33b, the very beginning of the Gemara on המפקיד. The Gemara says מקני ליה. The Artscroll English edition, vowelizes מקני as mak-nay. What are the precise possible translation(s) of ...
4
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1answer
60 views

Why is Aramaic "tlasah" used for wine in ketoret, where spices are counted in Hebrew "shlasha"?

In Talmud Keritot 6a, read in the siddur, it states, קילופה שלשה וקנמון תשעה בורית כרשינה תשעה קבין יין קפריסין סאין תלתא קבין תלתא Why is the Hebrew שלשה used for "three" (hin) in ...
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0answers
143 views

What is the difference between 'a minori ad majus' and 'a majori ad minus'

Good afternoon, I'm attempting to understand the "Thirty-Two Rules of Elezer B. Jose Ha-Gelili" and have come to the 5th rule and have a question; 1. Summary of Problem In reading the ...
2
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1answer
165 views

Why is there no דגש in the ת in the word "וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם"?

I am told that a בגדכפת letter takes a דגש following a closed syllable (examples of this: נִשְׁבַּ֧ע, בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ and לְנֶגְדְּכֶם֙) (i.e. ends with the letter and not the vowel), so why do words ...
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0answers
64 views

When does the rule of אתא מרחוק apply?

I was told that there is a rule that if a word has the stress מלעיל (i.e. not on the last syllable), then the first letter of the next word should have a dagesh. I can not find anywhere where this ...
1
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1answer
106 views

How is a "ד" without a דגש קל pronounced? [duplicate]

According to many books I have read, a דגש קל can only be present in the letters ב, ג, ד, כ, פ and ת. The Ashkenazi מסורה for pronunciations of the letters ג and ד without a דגש קל has been lost. I ...
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1answer
44 views

Grammar question in prayer

Why in the prayer: יי עז לעמו יתן , יי יברך את-עמו בשלום is the word יברך followed by את,? Both יברך & יתן are forms of a verb. Does anyone have any sources that address this grammar sentence ...
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0answers
53 views

When discussing the avoida of the 'bchoros', first-born, is the correct term 'bchoros' or 'bchorim'?

I think I've seen it written as 'bchoros' but since they are male shouldn't it be 'bchorim'?
10
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2answers
156 views

Why does Naomi talk in masculine form to her daughters-in-law?

In Rus 1:8, Naomi is telling her two daughters-in-law that they should return to their homes. וַתֹּ֤אמֶר נָעֳמִי֙ לִשְׁתֵּ֣י כַלֹּתֶ֔יהָ לֵ֣כְנָה שֹּׁ֔בְנָה אִשָּׁ֖ה לְבֵ֣ית אִמָּ֑הּ יעשה [יַ֣עַשׂ] ...
2
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1answer
131 views

Which part of Hebrew or textual grammar tells the reader to add to the verb in question the word "habitually"?

Which part of Hebrew or textual grammar tells the reader to add to the verb in question the word "habitually"? For example, Exodus 21:36 (Parashat Bo), Chabad translates the verb in question ...
5
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1answer
111 views

ולא תתורו: kadma veazla or azla-geresh?

In the third parashah of Shema' (maftir from P' Shelach) we have a divergence of cantillation on the words ולא תתורו. In R' Wolf Heidenheim (see Koren for a contempary example) these words are ...
2
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2answers
98 views

Is וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם in Shema with Shva Na or Shva Nach

My daughter goes to a chabad school (nusach ari?) and has been taught in class that וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם in the shema (end of first paragraph) is with a shvah na on the כְ. She also says it has the asterisk ...
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2answers
94 views

Rosh Hashanah vs Rosh Chodesh

The beginning of the Jewish year is referred to as Rosh Hashanah. The beginning of the Jewish month is called Rosh Chodesh. How come Rosh Hashanah has a "hey" (ה) in it, while Rosh Chodesh ...
3
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1answer
350 views

The grammatical nature of וָאִמָּלְטָה in the context of Job 1:15. How exactly did the only surviving servant "slip away"?

In Job 1:15, we read that the Sabeans fell upon and took Job's cattle and she-asses. Then they killed the young men, or servants, of Job, by the sword. Only one of these servants got away, and it is ...
2
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0answers
39 views

Using meteg to mark non-ultimate accented syllables

The common practice in current prayer books is to use a meteg to mark the stressed syllable in non-biblical texts if it's not the last one. The earliest edition using this method I have found is R' ...
0
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1answer
74 views

Malbim’s grammatical argument in Parashat Tzav

Can someone help me to understand the grammatical/ interpretive point that the Malbim is making in his commentary to Leviticus 6:21 (the entries numbered 67 and 68 on Sefaria)?
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2answers
52 views

When do you say אֶת, and when do you say אֵת? [duplicate]

How can one determine when the word "את" is pronounced with a t'zayray and when it is pronounced with a se'gol?
2
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1answer
94 views

Why are some Lameds with a flat top?

In many places in the siddur there are Lameds with a flat top, and there are some with a straight top. For example in the last הללוקה the word בצלצלי, the first lamed is with a straight top, and the ...
1
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1answer
80 views

Leniency in pronunciation while reading the Megillah (Iggeres)

I've heard that we are more lenient in regards to krias haMigglah than to krias haTorah (in regards to pronunciation), since the Migglah refers the itself as an Iggeres (letter). If this so, to what ...
0
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1answer
90 views

לָ vs. לַ vs. לְ and וָ vs. וַ vs. וְ

What are the differences in meaning between the prefix of the letter ל (lamed), when different vowels are used [i.e. לַ (patach), לָ (kumatz) and לְ (shva)]? What about variants of the usage of the ...
4
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1answer
73 views

What does "Bechozek Yad Hotzianu" mean?

At the end of Parshas Bo, we see the concept of "BeChozek Yad Hotzianu" 4 times, twice in connection with mitzvas t'fillin. What does "Bechozek Yad Hotzianu" really mean and what ...
1
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1answer
114 views

Why is the word "youth" בְּחֽוּרֹתֶ֑יךָ in the plural?

Why is the word "youth" בְּחֽוּרֹתֶ֑יךָ in Kohelet 12:1 in the plural, when the first word, the first verb in the sentence, indicates that the speaker is speaking to one person? וּזְכֹר֙ ...
2
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3answers
661 views

What does שליט"א stand for?

I thought that שליט"א came from the Aramaic word שליט (Ruler). But a Rabbi I told this to, pointed out that שליט"א is always written as with " , in the Middle so each the letters must ...
7
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2answers
713 views

How to apply the Masoretic note, "2x, once plene and once defectively" to Ruth 1:1?

In Ruth 1:1, there is a Masoretic note on שְׁפֹט which I do not understand: The picture is a little unclear, but the note says (I have highlighted the letters with a dot above them): ב חד מל וחד חס ...
2
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1answer
113 views

Ambiguity due to lack of punctuation

In Hungarian medieval history there's an interesting episode, when a few high ranking noblemen conspired to kill the queen. They asked the archbishop what to do, but he was hesitant to join either ...
2
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1answer
143 views

Similarity between atonement in Leviticus 4:20 & cover in Genesis 6:14 in terms of semantics, wording/phrasing, lettering/grammer, pronunciation?

I apologize but I do not know any Old Testament Hebrew so I'll have to rely on the responders to this post when it comes to analyzing the Old Testament Hebrew. Leviticus 4:20 (NASB 1995) 20 He shall ...
3
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1answer
113 views

Stressed syllable of באה

Yesterday I was looking at the text of how the incense had been prepared. In my ArtScroll book it is written: בֹּרִית כַּרְשִׁינָה לָמָה הִיא בָֽאָה A bit later it says: אַחַת לְשִׁשִּׁים אוֹ ...
0
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0answers
85 views

How do you pronounce this word in Onkelos

This word in Onkelos bereshis 41:50. Is the word pronounced “di y’lidat,” with the second letter of the word taking the sh’va na sound, or is the second letter of the word silent, with the word ...
0
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0answers
28 views

What's the purpose of first yod in Eideihen - Avodah Zarah 2a

עידיהן Referred to in Talmud (Avodah Zarah 2a) which is derived from Isaiah 43:9 have twoי (yods) whereas the one in Isaiah 43:9 is without the first yod ( עדיהם).The enlarged letters (witness) in ...
6
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0answers
80 views

Why is there no דגש in the כ״ף of הכזונה in פרשת וישלח לד:לא?

I know that the rule of ה״א התימה is that it usually takes a הֲ unless it precedes a שוא, such as here in הַכְזוֹנָה, where it then just takes a הַ and the following letter doesn't have a דגש in order ...
1
vote
1answer
249 views

Why are Hebrew cardinal numbers switched to the other gender after the first two?

When counting in Hebrew, the first two cardinal numbers are in the correct gender, but all subsequent numbers seem to be in the opposite gender? For example: Feminine Numbers are: אַחַתֹ-שְתַּיִםֹ-...
3
votes
1answer
180 views

Penultimate stress of אתה

By default, the world אַתָּה (you) has a final stress. If I am correct (and the concordance as well), out of 172 occurrences 159 satisfies this rule in the Torah (92%).* However, if this word is in a ...
3
votes
5answers
206 views

Letter צד"י or צדי"ק?

One of the letters of the hebrew alphabet is the letter 'צ'. When I was taught the hebrew alphabet, this letter was introduced as 'צד"י'. I believe this to be the generally accepted name of the ...
3
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1answer
207 views

Why the weird spelling of וַאֲבָרֶכְכָ֛ה in Breisheet 27:7?

Statement: In Breisheet Parashas Toldos, it says הָבִ֨יאָה לִּ֥י ... וַאֲבָרֶכְכָ֛ה לִפְנֵ֥י ה' לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹתִֽי: . Question: Why is the word וַאֲבָרֶכְכָ֛ה spelled in such an unusual manner instead of ...
3
votes
0answers
86 views

What is the rationale for only marking certain letters with sheva, when they are the last letter in a word?

In printed and manuscript editions of Tanach, I've noticed that a sheva on the final letter of a word is almost never marked, and is meant to be inferred. The two exceptions I've come across are: A ...
0
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1answer
34 views

Is it חִסָרון or חֶסרון?

In this Lechem Mishnah on the Rambam in Hilchos Deos says "ונראה לפרש דקצה ראשון הוא החסרון וקצה אחרון התוספת". Is it correct to put the nekudos as חִסָרון or חֶסרון?

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