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Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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8 views

Why a kamatz rather than a seqol at the end of a pasuk?

Why does a segol change to a kamatz at the end of a pasuk (or on an esnachta), as in the word for bread in the last paragraph of the birkat hamazon? (I know that is the pattern. The question is why.) ...
1
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1answer
16 views

Why is וְאַתָּה followed twice by a future and once by a command?

At the beginning of T'tzave, Exodus 27:20–28:3, we have three divine commands to Moses beginning with "וְאַתָּה / v'ata / and thou". Verse 20: וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

Why is the making of the ephod expressed in plural?

The beginning of Tetzaveh in Shemot 28:3, G-d tells Moshe to speak to the "people whom G-d inspired with knowledge of the heart" to make the garments for Aharon and his sons. In viewing the language ...
6
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0answers
49 views

Why is א-להי נשמה not א-להי הנשמה?

In the morning blessing of א-להי נשמה the first few words read א-להי ,נשמה שנתת בי. To me this literally translates as 'My G-d, soul that you put in me...' It sounds strange. Why not say, א-להי ,...
0
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0answers
12 views

Link between rejoice and redemption

Once I found a commentary which made a wordplay, connection or link between rejoicing (גִּיל) and redemption (גָּאַל). I liked the idea that redemption and rejoicing would go hand in hand. Is there ...
1
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0answers
27 views

Is there a way to lein Taamei Emes that includes mesharsim?

I learned to lein Taamei Emes a few years ago using this link, which I found in a comment here on MY. However, the tradition recorded there only takes the mafsikim into account, and all the mesharsim,...
2
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0answers
24 views

Bamateh vs. Hamateh

In Sh'mot 7:20 the pasuk tells of how Moshe and Aharon did what Hashem commanded and raised the staff and hit the water (well, ultimately, Aharon did). But the pasuk reads " וַיָּ֤רֶם בַּמַּטֶּה֙ ...
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0answers
23 views

Why is fem. description used to refer to days of Mashiach?

Near the end of the Uva Letzion prayer, there is a phrase that refers to ימות המשיח. This sounds like a feminine ending. Shouldn't the phrase be ימי המשיח as the word יום is masculine?
7
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2answers
133 views

Koren Siddur on Kal Atzmotai Tomarna

(Note: likely not relevant to those who Daven/read Hebrew with an Ashkenazi pronunciation.) This Shabbos I was asked to lead Pesukei Dezimrah at a shul I was visiting, and I was given a Koren Siddur ...
4
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1answer
88 views

Why does the number of letters Vav in name Achashverosh vary?

Why does Megillas Esther spell Achashverosh's name varyingly with one (as in 2:21), two (as in 1:1), and zero (as in 10:1) letters Vav?
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1answer
74 views

Why plural form? [closed]

I have started watching to the show Shtisel and I couldn’t help notice that sometimes the characters talk between them using the plural forms, even when directed to a single person. For example, on ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Shva Nah and Nach [duplicate]

Our son is in first grade and is almost seven. His yeshiva called us to tell us that he is getting some shva nah's and some shva nach's mixed up. I also noticed this. I am trying to clarify the ...
4
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1answer
72 views

Missing את before a Definite Article

In שמות ,ב:ט, there seems to be a missing את before the definite article הילד. The Minchat Shai gives a cryptic answer (תקח האשה הילד. מטעים ביה אינשי דאמרי את.). Anyone know why the את is absent?
7
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2answers
73 views

Why “תֶּבֶן” at the end of a verse?

Normally in Chumash, when a three-letter word with a segol on each of the first two letters appears at the end of a pasuk (or half-pasuk, with an esnachta), the first segol changes to a kamatz. Thus, ...
2
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1answer
56 views

What is the form of טבו in מה טבו אהליך יעקב?

In the verse (Num 24,5): מַה־טֹּבוּ אֹהָלֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב מִשְׁכְּנֹתֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ What's the meaning of טובו, could it not be written מה טובים אהליך יעקב?
2
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1answer
68 views

Why “your hand” is spelled ידכה instead of ידך?

In שמות יג:טז: "וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃" the word ידכה is used. Why is it not spelled ידך?
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1answer
30 views

What rule governs the varying nikkud in words מִשְׁתֶּה and מִשְׁתֵּה?

What rule governs the varying nikkud in words מִשְׁתֶּה and מִשְׁתֵּה in Megillas Ester? In Ashkenazi pronunciation this makes a difference because the first is read as "Mishte" and the second is read ...
3
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0answers
133 views

“Eis” instead of “es” in the crop b'racha in the Amida

The ninth b'racha of the amida begins with the words בָּרֵךְ עָלֵינוּ ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ אֶת הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת כָּל מִינֵי תְּבוּאָתָהּ לְטוֹבָה where both את are vocalized with segol (three ...
4
votes
1answer
97 views

Why does chabad say “Yisbareich” instead of “yisbarach”?

Why according to the Nusach Ari (siddur "Tehilat Hashem") does it say "yisbareich" instead of "yisbarach" in Kaddish?
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Dagesh lene in קדּשנו

When we say the blessing on commandments, such as Tefillin, there is a dagesh in the דּ of קדּשנו. From what I have learnt a dagesh lene occurs when the בגד כפת starts a syllable and is not preceded ...
6
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0answers
82 views

Redundant Direct Objects: ני- and אתי in Same Clause?

Breishit 30:20 says: "וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה זְבָדַנִי אֱלֹקים אֹתִי זֵבֶד טוֹב..." What is the function of the word אֹתִי? Since the objective pronominal suffix ני- from זְבָדַנִי expresses the direct ...
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0answers
36 views

Meaning of ישב אהלים and grammar

We read last Shabbat parshat Toldot in which we find the famous statement in Bereshit 25:27 וְיַעֲקֹב֙ אִ֣ישׁ תָּ֔ם יֹשֵׁ֖ב אֹהָלִֽים The mefarshim deals with the meaning of ישב אהלים, some like ...
2
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2answers
142 views

Does the Dagesh forte really replace a double letter?

I have read about the Dagesh Forte and how it doubles a letter in Tanach. For example, הָלֵּלוּ has a dagesh forte in the לֵּ. If this dagesh was not there would there really be two ל instead? ...
5
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0answers
49 views

Ascending or descending order when mentioning units in a number?

I noticed an apparent conflict when the Torah uses units of a large number. It seems to occur with mentioning someone's age. Examples: Breishit 23:1 Sarah lived 100 years and 20 years and 7 years ...
1
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2answers
78 views

Use of definite article (ה) in יהי רצון … מצות התלוים

The paragraph after the ברכה (b'racha) of ציצת (tzitzis) ends with the expression " וְתַרְיַ"ג מִצְות הַתְּלוּיִם בָּהּ". My question is why does the word "התלוים" start with "ה"? It appears like ...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

Dagesh after an interrogative hey

Bereshit 18:21 אֵֽרְדָה-נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה הַכְּצַֽעֲקָתָ֛הּ הַבָּ֥אָה אֵלַ֖י עָשׂ֣וּ | כָּלָ֑ה וְאִם-לֹ֖א אֵדָֽעָה:‏ I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according ...
2
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2answers
68 views

ברכי נפשי…גדלת מאד - Tehillim 104

In Tehillim 104. The first verse uses the expression גדלת מאד. The vowels under גדלת are 2nd person, past tense. However, in the context of the verse this is not how it is translated. Why is this not ...
3
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2answers
78 views

ברכות switch between 2nd and 3rd person

Why in a ברכה for a commandment (for example, hand washing, Tefillin etc.) do we switch between 'You' ברוך אתה and 'His' במצותיו ? Why don't we say במצותיך ?
3
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0answers
34 views

What verses of Tanach have penultimate stress on every word?

Saying kaparos this year, I noticed that Iyov 33:24, which is included in the rite, has all its words mil'el, i.e. with the penultimate rather than the ultimate syllable stressed. (Most words in ...
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0answers
39 views

Why is the word “Kotveinu” not “Kotbeinu” with a dagesh?

כתבינו לחיים. The tav has a (seemingly) short vowel to close the forst vowel, which sefardim pronounce as the short "kot". There is no meteg before the sh'va of the tav. Why is the bet written without ...
7
votes
2answers
96 views

Pronunciation of בשגם - Patach or Kamatz?

This past Shabbos in shul, I saw a paper about the pronunciation of the word בשגם (Bereishis 6 3). "וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה ...
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0answers
26 views

מלא יד - full hand, meaning?

I've a question about the combination of words מלא יד as shown in verses like Shemot 29:35, 32:29, Vayikra 8:33, Bamidbar 3:3, 1 Divrei HaYamim 29:5, 2 Divrei HaYamim 6:4, 6:15, 13:9, 29:31 etc... ...
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2answers
53 views

ענה how to define

I would like to know how to define the root word ענה, what actual meanings are given to this root and what is the common denomitor? [I’ve found this root in different verses, so I don’t want to ...
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0answers
13 views

English equivalent of לשון חיים [duplicate]

In לשון חיים, there is an introduction of about 45 pages of general grammar rules of lashon kodesh. Are there any English equivalents of that material presented there (the לשון חיים is written in ...
4
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1answer
78 views

Neḥemia 8:7 - Six pazers?

Neḥemia 8:7 וְיֵשׁ֡וּעַ וּבָנִ֡י וְשֵׁרֵ֥בְיָ֣ה ׀ יָמִ֡ין עַקּ֡וּב שַׁבְּתַ֣י ׀ הֽוֹדִיָּ֡֡ה מַעֲשֵׂיָ֡ה קְלִיטָ֣א עֲזַרְיָה֩ יוֹזָבָ֨ד חָנָ֤ן פְּלָאיָה֙ וְהַלְוִיִּ֔֔ם מְבִינִ֥ים אֶת־הָעָ֖ם ...
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0answers
34 views

Yehi Ratzon for a Choleh — singular or plural

In the Amida, the bracha of Refa'einu, there is an additional supplication one may add and name a sick person. The text is the same as what is on this card. In my siddurim, I have seen the request in ...
1
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0answers
48 views

Learning Dikduk on Tish’ah B’Av

Is it permissible to learn dikduk of Biblical Hebrew on tish’ah b’av or is it considered learning Torah? If a grammar or book one is using to learn dikduk quotes pesukim or phrases from תנ״ך to show ...
8
votes
1answer
92 views

Vowels in tefilat Hashachar

In tefilat "leoylom yehe Odom... " there is a statement ָקַדֵּש אֶת שִמְךָ בְּעוֹלָמֶך Instinctively my tendency is to read beoylomecho with a shevo below the letter beys. But in siddur Tehilas ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Bil’am cursing terminology - א.ר.ר, ק.ב.ב and ק.ל.ל

Within the story of Balak and Bil’am I noticed a shift in words for curse and cursing. In Numbers 22:6 Balak asks Bil’am to curse him the Israelites ארה-לי, of which the root seems to be ארר. Numbers ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

הם (heym) vs. המה (heyma)

Why does the Torah use the word המה - HEYMA - in these 19 psukim (20 times) instead of the more common and simple form הם - HEYM ? בראשית ו ד בראשית ז יד בראשית מב לה בראשית מד ג שמות יט יג שמות ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

Mil'al vs. Milra on “Lamah”

In a few places in the Torah, the word למה is pronounced מלעיל (accent on 1st syllable) and in other places מלרע (accent on 2nd syllable.) I viewed Bemidbar 11:11 which has both in the same verse. ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת? [duplicate]

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת in Megillas Ester? In Ashkenazi pronunciation this makes a difference because the first is read as "Es" and the second is read as "Eys."
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Hebrew grammar according to the Rabbanim

Is there a comprehensive book which collects all opinions from Rishonim all the way down to our times concerning Hebrew grammar rules?
7
votes
0answers
241 views

What are the rules for sh'va na?

What is the full list of rules for when to pronounce a sh'va (i.e. na) during tefillah and keriat hatorah? When I was in school, I remember being taught that a sh'va was na in the following 5 cases (...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Is the word “Nischazeik” or “Nischazak”?

When completing an entire book of the Torah (ex. Bereishis), it is customary in some communities to recite the words חזק חזק ונתחזק which is translated out to "be strong, be strong, and let us be ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Nikkud for Halleluyah

I was learning to chant Tehillim in Israel last year. The Syrians have a tradition for how to chant psalms and they base their tradition off the Aleppo Codex. In their siddurim, Halleluyah is written ...
2
votes
2answers
78 views

Why are there varying vowels on proper nouns in Megillas Ester?

In Megillas Ester, several proper nouns (such as Mordechai, and Shushan) use komatz and patach interchangeably. In sefardi pronunciation this does not make much of a difference, but in ashkenazi ...
6
votes
1answer
105 views

Why is מקראי קדש not נסוג אחור?

In Parshat Emor, Vayikra 23:2: דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם מוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם מִקְרָאֵ֣י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם מוֹעֲדָֽי׃ And also 23:37: ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

A shevah after a Shooruk (milupim) at the beginning of word [duplicate]

This may seem like a simple question but I took a poll and asked some people I know how they pronounce the word וּנְסַפֵּר. I personally say U-N-sa-per. Others said like me and others say Un-sa-per. I ...
5
votes
2answers
109 views

Which word is said under the chuppah - זוֹ or זוּ?

The groom tells the bride under the chuppah: הרי את מקודשת לי בטבעת זו כדת משה וישראל Is the word זו pronounced with a cholam (וֹ) as in "zo" or with a shuruk (וּ) as in "zu"? I have seen both ...