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Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

3
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0answers
81 views

“Eis” instead of “es” in the crop b'racha in the Amida

The ninth b'racha of the amida begins with the words בָּרֵךְ עָלֵינוּ ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ אֶת הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת כָּל מִינֵי תְּבוּאָתָהּ לְטוֹבָה where both את are vocalized with segol (three ...
4
votes
1answer
84 views

Why does chabad say “Yisbareich” instead of “yisbarach”?

Why according to the Nusach Ari (siddur "Tehilat Hashem") does it say "yisbareich" instead of "yisbarach" in Kaddish?
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Dagesh lene in קדּשנו

When we say the blessing on commandments, such as Tefillin, there is a dagesh in the דּ of קדּשנו. From what I have learnt a dagesh lene occurs when the בגד כפת starts a syllable and is not preceded ...
6
votes
0answers
82 views

Redundant Direct Objects: ני- and אתי in Same Clause?

Breishit 30:20 says: "וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה זְבָדַנִי אֱלֹקים אֹתִי זֵבֶד טוֹב..." What is the function of the word אֹתִי? Since the objective pronominal suffix ני- from זְבָדַנִי expresses the direct ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Meaning of ישב אהלים and grammar

We read last Shabbat parshat Toldot in which we find the famous statement in Bereshit 25:27 וְיַעֲקֹב֙ אִ֣ישׁ תָּ֔ם יֹשֵׁ֖ב אֹהָלִֽים The mefarshim deals with the meaning of ישב אהלים, some like ...
2
votes
2answers
130 views

Does the Dagesh forte really replace a double letter?

I have read about the Dagesh Forte and how it doubles a letter in Tanach. For example, הָלֵּלוּ has a dagesh forte in the לֵּ. If this dagesh was not there would there really be two ל instead? ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Ascending or descending order when mentioning units in a number?

I noticed an apparent conflict when the Torah uses units of a large number. It seems to occur with mentioning someone's age. Examples: Breishit 23:1 Sarah lived 100 years and 20 years and 7 years ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

Use of definite article (ה) in יהי רצון … מצות התלוים

The paragraph after the ברכה (b'racha) of ציצת (tzitzis) ends with the expression " וְתַרְיַ"ג מִצְות הַתְּלוּיִם בָּהּ". My question is why does the word "התלוים" start with "ה"? It appears like ...
4
votes
1answer
65 views

Dagesh after an interrogative hey

Bereshit 18:21 אֵֽרְדָה-נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה הַכְּצַֽעֲקָתָ֛הּ הַבָּ֥אָה אֵלַ֖י עָשׂ֣וּ | כָּלָ֑ה וְאִם-לֹ֖א אֵדָֽעָה:‏ I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according ...
2
votes
2answers
63 views

ברכי נפשי…גדלת מאד - Tehillim 104

In Tehillim 104. The first verse uses the expression גדלת מאד. The vowels under גדלת are 2nd person, past tense. However, in the context of the verse this is not how it is translated. Why is this not ...
3
votes
2answers
76 views

ברכות switch between 2nd and 3rd person

Why in a ברכה for a commandment (for example, hand washing, Tefillin etc.) do we switch between 'You' ברוך אתה and 'His' במצותיו ? Why don't we say במצותיך ?
3
votes
0answers
29 views

What verses of Tanach have penultimate stress on every word?

Saying kaparos this year, I noticed that Iyov 33:24, which is included in the rite, has all its words mil'el, i.e. with the penultimate rather than the ultimate syllable stressed. (Most words in ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Why is the word “Kotveinu” not “Kotbeinu” with a dagesh?

כתבינו לחיים. The tav has a (seemingly) short vowel to close the forst vowel, which sefardim pronounce as the short "kot". There is no meteg before the sh'va of the tav. Why is the bet written without ...
7
votes
2answers
93 views

Pronunciation of בשגם - Patach or Kamatz?

This past Shabbos in shul, I saw a paper about the pronunciation of the word בשגם (Bereishis 6 3). "וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

מלא יד - full hand, meaning?

I've a question about the combination of words מלא יד as shown in verses like Shemot 29:35, 32:29, Vayikra 8:33, Bamidbar 3:3, 1 Divrei HaYamim 29:5, 2 Divrei HaYamim 6:4, 6:15, 13:9, 29:31 etc... ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

ענה how to define

I would like to know how to define the root word ענה, what actual meanings are given to this root and what is the common denomitor? [I’ve found this root in different verses, so I don’t want to ...
0
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0answers
13 views

English equivalent of לשון חיים [duplicate]

In לשון חיים, there is an introduction of about 45 pages of general grammar rules of lashon kodesh. Are there any English equivalents of that material presented there (the לשון חיים is written in ...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

Neḥemia 8:7 - Six pazers?

Neḥemia 8:7 וְיֵשׁ֡וּעַ וּבָנִ֡י וְשֵׁרֵ֥בְיָ֣ה ׀ יָמִ֡ין עַקּ֡וּב שַׁבְּתַ֣י ׀ הֽוֹדִיָּ֡֡ה מַעֲשֵׂיָ֡ה קְלִיטָ֣א עֲזַרְיָה֩ יוֹזָבָ֨ד חָנָ֤ן פְּלָאיָה֙ וְהַלְוִיִּ֔֔ם מְבִינִ֥ים אֶת־הָעָ֖ם ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Yehi Ratzon for a Choleh — singular or plural

In the Amida, the bracha of Refa'einu, there is an additional supplication one may add and name a sick person. The text is the same as what is on this card. In my siddurim, I have seen the request in ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Learning Dikduk on Tish’ah B’Av

Is it permissible to learn dikduk of Biblical Hebrew on tish’ah b’av or is it considered learning Torah? If a grammar or book one is using to learn dikduk quotes pesukim or phrases from תנ״ך to show ...
8
votes
1answer
89 views

Vowels in tefilat Hashachar

In tefilat "leoylom yehe Odom... " there is a statement ָקַדֵּש אֶת שִמְךָ בְּעוֹלָמֶך Instinctively my tendency is to read beoylomecho with a shevo below the letter beys. But in siddur Tehilas ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Bil’am cursing terminology - א.ר.ר, ק.ב.ב and ק.ל.ל

Within the story of Balak and Bil’am I noticed a shift in words for curse and cursing. In Numbers 22:6 Balak asks Bil’am to curse him the Israelites ארה-לי, of which the root seems to be ארר. Numbers ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

הם (heym) vs. המה (heyma)

Why does the Torah use the word המה - HEYMA - in these 19 psukim (20 times) instead of the more common and simple form הם - HEYM ? בראשית ו ד בראשית ז יד בראשית מב לה בראשית מד ג שמות יט יג שמות ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Mil'al vs. Milra on “Lamah”

In a few places in the Torah, the word למה is pronounced מלעיל (accent on 1st syllable) and in other places מלרע (accent on 2nd syllable.) I viewed Bemidbar 11:11 which has both in the same verse. ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת? [duplicate]

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת in Megillas Ester? In Ashkenazi pronunciation this makes a difference because the first is read as "Es" and the second is read as "Eys."
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Hebrew grammar according to the Rabbanim

Is there a comprehensive book which collects all opinions from Rishonim all the way down to our times concerning Hebrew grammar rules?
7
votes
0answers
151 views

What are the rules for sh'va na?

What is the full list of rules for when to pronounce a sh'va (i.e. na) during tefillah and keriat hatorah? When I was in school, I remember being taught that a sh'va was na in the following 5 cases (...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Is the word “Nischazeik” or “Nischazak”?

When completing an entire book of the Torah (ex. Bereishis), it is customary in some communities to recite the words חזק חזק ונתחזק which is translated out to "be strong, be strong, and let us be ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Nikkud for Halleluyah

I was learning to chant Tehillim in Israel last year. The Syrians have a tradition for how to chant psalms and they base their tradition off the Aleppo Codex. In their siddurim, Halleluyah is written ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

Why is there varying vowels on proper nouns in Megillas Ester?

In Megillas Ester, several proper nouns (such as Mordechai, and Shushan) use komatz and patach interchangeably. In sefardi pronunciation this does not make much of a difference, but in ashkenazi ...
6
votes
1answer
91 views

Why is מקראי קדש not נסוג אחור?

In Parshat Emor, Vayikra 23:2: דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם מוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם מִקְרָאֵ֣י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם מוֹעֲדָֽי׃ And also 23:37: ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

A shevah after a Shooruk (milupim) at the beginning of word [duplicate]

This may seem like a simple question but I took a poll and asked some people I know how they pronounce the word וּנְסַפֵּר. I personally say U-N-sa-per. Others said like me and others say Un-sa-per. I ...
5
votes
2answers
104 views

Which word is said under the chuppah - זוֹ or זוּ?

The groom tells the bride under the chuppah: הרי את מקודשת לי בטבעת זו כדת משה וישראל Is the word זו pronounced with a cholam (וֹ) as in "zo" or with a shuruk (וּ) as in "zu"? I have seen both ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Are there two verses anywhere in Tanakh with the same words but different cantillation?

Are there two pesukim anywhere in Tanakh which contain exactly the same words, but which have different cantillation? I am particularly interested in cases where the different cantillation causes the ...
0
votes
2answers
96 views

Ma Nishtana question

In מה נשתנה, first it says הלילה הזה which is זכר and then it says הלילות which is נקבה. Do any commentators theorize why it switches gender?
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Different roots applied to the same verse of 2 Samuel 11:24

2 Samuel 11:24 (Westminster Leningrad Codex) reads: [וַיֹּרְאוּ כ] (וַיֹּר֨וּ ק) [הַמֹּורְאִים כ] (הַמֹּורִ֤ים ק) Two of these come from the root (ק) ירה while the other two come from the root (...
0
votes
2answers
140 views

How to pronounce ישראל - Yisroel or Yisrael? [closed]

Why do many people spell, and pronounce, the name ישראל as Yisroel, as if it had an americanized cholem? Isn't it spelled with a kamatz? Do such people still pronounce it as Yisroel in Shema?
2
votes
1answer
240 views

Dagesh at end of בראת

I noticed that in borei nefashot in the Artscroll Siddur and in the Koren Siddur the tav in word בראת has no dagesh. I was under the impression that the tav suffix for second person masculine past ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Full Kaddish - Titkabel or Titkabal? [duplicate]

There is this line in the full kaddish: ..תתקבל צלותהון but the nikkud in my siddur read Titkabel, while in another it says Titkabal; What's the difference? Which one should be used? .
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Difference in suffix regards the word Shabat

Looking at the words שבת שבתון (ex. Vayikra 23:24) and שבתות (ex. Vayikra 23:15) and there root שבת what do endings ון- and ות- indicate here? What do these suffixes mean/indicate? P.s. Are there ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

The definition of ריב and its applications?

The verb ריב is often translated as quarrel, dispute, murmer, strife or argument, which seems quite logical when looking at Bereshit 13:7 when the herdsmen were bickering about land because it couldn'...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

Difference between מלכו and מלכותו

I was wondering what the difference in meaning (and thus, in the interpretation of Pesukim in the Megillah, as well as various Pesukim in Tanach) between למלכו and למלכותו, specifically according to ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Different words for curse

I noticed in translation different words are being used to describe 'curse' 1. מארה - m'erah, curse 2. קללה - klalah, curse 3. ארר - arar, curse 4. אלה - alah, curse 5. קבב - kavav, curse... maybe ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

A heap of people and ingathering of food

Is there any connection between the word אסף (to gather, collect) and אסם (literally a barn or storehouse but could be from an unised root meaning to heap up). I wondered because there is a feast in ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

translation of vayikra

I believe the vav of vayikra is a vav hamehapeich, meaning it switches yikra from asid to avar. To that extent I heard that the correct translation would be He called, rather than "and He called" (...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

אדנים - Singular vs. Plural

I don't know if this is more Hebrew or if it is about biblical explication. In Malachi 1:6, the text reads וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִ֣ים אָנִי֩ which is translated (on Sefaria and cChabad) as "If I am a master" ...
13
votes
2answers
204 views

Dreamed vs. Dreaming a Dream

Posting for another friend. When does Lashon Hakodesh (throughout Tanach) use "ויחלם" (and he dreamed") by itself and when is "ויחלם חלום" ("and he dreamed a dream") used? It seems that most of the ...
4
votes
0answers
114 views

Correct pronunciation of הנתונים בצרה ובשביה

In the Tefillah of "Acheinu", we discuss our brothers who are "נתונים בצרה ובשביה". I have heard these words vowelized with a Pasach under the Beis of both terms (Batzarah Uvashivya, which would mean "...
3
votes
2answers
87 views

Throwing to vs. Throwing into the pit

I would need some help to answer a grammar question in order to understand the exact meaning a critical piece of the selling of Yosef. The Torah says in Bereshit 37:20 (from www.chabad.org): "...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Different customs regarding the blessing before lighting the menorah [duplicate]

There are varying customs as to the text of the bracha we recite before lighting the menorah. Ashkenazim generally end the blessing with the words: .לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל חֲנֻכָּה However, Hasidim ...