This kind of vowelization doesn't appear anywhere in the Tanach, because nouns in semichut, or which mark possession, can never have a definite article in front of them.
Dayan Levi Yitzchak Raskin, in his notes to the Chabad prayer book, notes the anomalous vowelization, and points to a few other places in the prayer book where a sheva takes the place of a kamatz (the other way around), such as ֹוּמֵאִיר לְעוֹלָם כֻּלּו in the blessings before shema in the morning and הַמֵּאִיר לְעוֹלָם כֻּלּו for the bedtime shema.
As you noted, the prayer book Tefila Yeshara also has this vowelization. Since it was published in 5480, and the first version of the prayer book of the first rabbi of Chabad was published in 5552, Tefila Yeshara might have been one of the "sixty prayer books" he used when deciding the text.
This might explain where this vowelization comes from, but not why. I don't know whether it was done for some mystical reason, a different opinion on grammar, or if it was simply an error.
The references I used were linked from Wikipedia and a mailing list discussion about this that I found.