The reason we have double parshiyos in the first place is in order to satisfy the four basic rules (given in Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 428:4) about the distribution of parshiyos throughout the year. In particular, the first two are: that the Shabbos before Pesach has to be Parshas Tzav in a regular year, or Metzora in a leap year; and that the Shabbos ...
As with all questions of practical halachah, CYLOR (especially since there may be public policy issues involved). However:
Responsa Hillel Omer (Yoreh De'ah 144) addresses such a case. He says that the boy is certainly allowed to have an aliyah, considering that it's not his fault that he is uncircumcised; at that age the responsibility still rests on his ...
A yad (Hebrew: יד) (Yiddish: האַנט), literally, "hand," is a Jewish
ritual pointer, popularly known as a Torah pointer, used by the reader
to follow the text during the Torah reading from the parchment Torah
scrolls. Beyond its practical usage, the yad ensures that the
parchment is not touched during the reading. There are several ...
In terms of the history of division of Aliyot, you should see Ilana Katzenellenbogen's survey article in Sinai 119 (1998), pp. 224-45. She looks at 33 different division customs from the last 1000 years from around the Jewish world and compiles a ~10 page chart with all the different variants from "our common custom" (OCC). Her conclusions are (summarized ...
The Beis Yosef Simman 135 writes regarding the halacha of hagbah (Sefardim do it at the beginning of the Torah service, and Chazal call hagbah gelilah)
וכתוב עוד במ"ס פרק הנזכר (פי"ד) וז"ל כשמוציאין ס"ת אומר על הכל יתגדל ויתקדש וכו' מיד גולל ס"ת עד ג' דפין ומראה פני כתיבתו לעם העומדים לימינו ולשמאלו ומחזירין לפניו ולאחריו שמצוה לכל אנשים ונשים לראות הכתב ...
The Radak that is mentioned is from Shmuel II 15:21.
We find in the Talmud (Nedarim 37נ):
אמר רבי יצחק מקרא סופרים ועיטור סופרים וקריין ולא כתיבן וכתיבן ולא קריין הלכה למשה מסיני
R. Yitachak said: The textual reading, as transmitted by the scribes, their stylistic embellishments,
[words] read [in the text] but not written, and words written but ...
To answer question 1:
Magen Avraham writes that they should not wait for the Kohen because of tirchah di'tzibbura (135:6) or because of the honor of the congregation (135:7).
If you don't wait, should you call a Levi or Yisra'el?
Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (23:10) writes that a Levi or Yisrael may be called in his place.
To answer question 2:
Once again ...
I've been a Torah reader for about 45 years, and have read Megilla for about 20 years. This is tough to give you an exact assessment, here, because there are several factors here. So, take what I write as my own "best professional" opinion.
I'm going to assume throughout that you can both read and pronounce Hebrew well. (I've been listening to numerous Bar ...
The Shulchan Aruch OC 145:3 says that:
האידנא לא נהגו לתרגם, משום דמה תועלת בתרגום כיון שאין מבינים אותו:
And nowadays the custom is not to translate [to Aramaic] because what benefit is there to do so since we do not understand it.
Additionally, the Tur there quotes a Yerushalmi that says that the meturgeman is not me'ackeiv (prevents the fulfillment ...
I don't know about whether such a practice technique is permissible, but I'd recommend against it for other reasons.
Unfortunately, due to Torah-readers' habit of singing "Amen" as an introduction to their reading, they sometimes end up delaying this response until too long after the blessing it's responding to. (The response is supposed to be "immediate" ...
I have seen this practice in action in a Yemenite shul in Rosh Ha'ayin, Israel. I got called up for an 'aliya, and the gabbai leined on my behalf, but I was the ignorant exception.
They also had a boy reading Targum after (if I recall correctly) each 'aliya.
I asked this question to one of my Rabbeim when I was a teenager. His response was "We do not want to finish an Aliya with the name of an Avoda Zara וַנֵּשֶׁב בַּגָּיְא מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר therefore Levi goes until Sheni and then we give the Yisrael from there".
My Simanim Tikkun does have seven aliyot marked in V'zot Habracha (the sixth starting at "Meona", and the seventh at "Vaya'al Moshe"), but perhaps this is because it is the Israeli version of the tikkun. All other tikkunim I've seen (in Israel) have seven aliyot as well.
The custom I've seen, when Simchat Torah falls on shabbat, is to indeed add an extra ...
Asher Laufer (אשר לאופר) wrote a paper "תנועות ידיים וראש בשעת קריאת התורה" on this subject. He describes (in my own very loose translation and sometimes condensation):
In Rabat, Morocco, the Torah reader himself moved his right hand or his head when reading words with mafsik (pausal) cantillation. That is, the motions constituted an "accompaniment":
Based on observations in a Sepharadic environment:
I have signed ta'amim for several readers using systems they taught me. They all seem to be based around the same signs, even if there are nuances between various methods. They are more or less imitations of the ta'am symbol, using your hand against the inside edge of the Sefer Torah case (upright, of ...
Because the Halacha is that you can sit (and such was the custom in the majority of synagogues in the period of the Rishonim), and everyone in a given place should follow the same custom. (Or Yitzchak 1:53)
Mishna Berakhot 2:1
היה קורא בתורה, והגיע זמן המקרא--אם כיוון את ליבו, יצא; ואם לאו, לא יצא.
If he was reading in the Torah and it came time to read [Shema]: if he intended, he fulfilled his obligation, and if not, he did not. (my translation)
Rambam (Shema 2:1) and ShA (OC 60:5) rule this way as well. So "assuming he has the proper kavana (intent)...
In a standard Torah scroll they are indeed the same height as the rest of the columns, but they are wider than the regular columns. To keep the proportions right and have it fit on one page, it looks like those printers scaled the whole column down to page width.
Rambam writes (Sefer Torah 9:10) that in his Torah scroll the columns were 4 finger-breadths ...
On a Kabbalistic level, the ksiv represents עלמא דאתכסיא, the hidden realm of G-d's thought, while the kri represents עלמא דאתגליא, the revealed realm of His speech.
(R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Likkutei Torah 6d, citing his teacher the Maggid of Mezeritch)
Levush (Orach Chaim 669) says that it is because its first verse condemns the Jewish people על מכרם בכסף צדיק - for selling the righteous for money. This ties in, then, with the brothers' sale of Yosef (even though the simple meaning of the verse is referring to the kingdom of Yisrael some 900 years later).
Indeed, the next phrase, ואביון בעבור נעלים, "and ...
The Radak wrote Sefer HaMichlol (available on HebrewBooks) in order to make it easier for a person to learn grammar.
Another good grammar book to read is Sefer Mo'znayim by Ibn Ezra. In the title page, Rabbi Wolf Heidenheim says that there is no better Hebrew grammar book than it. I also found this pdf which has the book newly typeset and easier to read.
It should first be noted that the k'thiv/q'rei phenomenon you refer to is only observed in the Pentateuch and not elsewhere in Tanach. That being said, there appear to be two major camps on this issue. One camp believes along the lines of what you suggested, namely that הוא was actually written to mean היא. The explanation is that waw and yod were used ...
They would take out a separate Sefer Torah and read the curses, in addition to the standard weekly parshah.
Source: I heard it directly from a well-known rav, who based it on the Rambam Hil. Tefillah, 13:1-2.
There is a concern that the congregation might come to think that the Brachos said before Torah reading are written in the Torah, but closing the Torah and then opening it would take extra time (see Megillah 31a). Therefore, the Rama (139:6) writes that it is best to turn one's head away from the Torah while making the Beracha. Once one is turning his head, ...
To answer your question as briefly as I can, during a leap year where Rosh Hashannah begins on Tursday and the year is "Chaser" - "Deficient" meaning 383 days long, then Pesach begins on Sunday, and there will be 55 Shabatot in total. I am also assuming that we are talking about Galut readings, as Israel readings have slightly different rules.
We have 54 ...
There are grammatical rules in general, but for your case:
It's always שושַן הבירה, otherwise שושָן.
It's always מרדכַי except on an esnachta, sof pasuk, or in exactly one case a zakeif katon ויגידו למרדכָי את דברי אסתר.
The general rule is any of the letters בגדכפת have a dageish (dot) at the beginning of a word, except when they come after a word that (a) ...
The word is spelled לָמָה (without a dagesh and stressed on the final syllable) when the following word begins with an א or ה or ע,* and spelled לָמָּה (with a dagesh and stressed on the penultimate syllable) in every other case.
There are eight exceptions to these rules (enumerated in Masora Gedola to Psalms 43:2): The three cases of לָמָה before letters ...
The source is in the Talmud, Megillah 31a (link). It is a statement of Rav Huna, in the name of Rav:
אמר רב הונא אמר רב שבת שחל להיות בחולו
של מועד בין בפסח בין בסוכות מקרא קרינן
מקרא קרינן ראה אתה - שיש שם מצות שבת
ורגלים וחולו של מועד דכתיב את חג המצות
תשמור ומכאן למדנו איסור מלאכת חולו של
מועד במסכת חגיגה (דף יח.):...
I would recommend either "Biblical Hebrew for Students of Modern Israeli Hebrew" by Marc Zvi Brettler or "A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew" by C. L. Seow. I've used each of these books in a biblical hebrew course in college.