This is in the Ramo (O.C. 585:2) to blow specifically on the right side of the mouth. The Magain Avraham says this is based on the verse (Zecharia 3:1) והשטן עומד על ימינו - the Satan stands on his right side.
For the first one: there's an Aramaic term עללתא, meaning "crop" or "harvest" (see Talmud, Nedarim 55a, and Targum Onkelos to Vayikra 25:3). Could be that the Akkadian cognate, if there is one, had an aleph instead of an ayin. (In fact, according to Wikipedia, Akkadian lacked an ayin sound.)
For the second: the Aramaic word for "spy&...
Based on the accepted answer to the question you refer to (Why does earthly punishment start at 13 and divine punishment at 20?), it seems that
teenagers really should be taking the Yamim Noraim seriously.
To be more specific, the accepted answer lists 4 caveats from the Chacham Tzvi (Response 49) about the under 20 rule.
Let's analyze each one:
I forget who told me this, but I heard that Tomer Devorah is traditionally studied in the month of Elul.
I've been told that the Bobover Rebbe told his chassidim to learn Tomer Devorah this year, and that Rav Moshe Wolfson told his Kehilla the same a few years back.
This practice makes sense, because the first chapter of Tomer Devorah is about Hashem's 13 ...
Shulchan Aruch HaRav writes (O.C. 429):
חכמים הראשונים תקנו בזמן שבית המקדש היה קיים שיתחילו הדרשנים לדרוש ברבים הלכות הרגל שלשים יום לפני הרגל דהיינו ... ומי"ד באלול ואילך ידרשו הלכות החג ... ותקנה זו לא נתבטלה מישראל אף לאחר שחרב בית המקדש ... והעיקר לדרוש ולהורות להם דרכי ה' וללמד להם המעשה אשר יעשון ולא כמו שנוהגין עכשיו
ובדורות הללו שאין החכם שונה ...
I know many Yeshivas where the Rosh Yeshiva interrupts his regularly scheduled programming of a vaad or whatever public mussar seder he has to go through Shaarei Teshuva of Rabbeinu Yona during Elul. I know the Rosh Yeshiva of Passaic (R' Meir Stern) used to do this for his machshava chabura, but I don't know if he still does.
In Ner Israel, the Rosh ...
Rabbi Yosef Ber Soleveitchik would teach Likkutei Torah from the Ba'al HaTanya during Elul in preparation for Rosh Hashana.
The relevant Ma'amarim start in Parshas Reih and continue from there.
I haven't been able to find someone who reports specifically what from there he would learn with his students.
The text of the Selihot appears at Da`at (Herzog College) and at Wikitext.
The text is nearly the same every day. There are additions for the 10 days of repentance, and there is a small section which varies based on the day of the week.
There are also sections which are said in some congregations but not in others.
In principle you could say Kaddish on just a couple verses, but you don't usually see people stopping after every few lines of the daily Psalm to say Kaddish because the general rule* is to always minimize the number of times Kaddish is said. So if there is only one mourner (or multiple mourners who are going to say Kaddish together) then say one Kaddish at ...
R. Dov Lior bluntly says one is permitted to blow from an invalid shofar during Elul; presumably because it is only a minhag and therefore dinei shofar don't govern something that isn't halahically required. However, the Belzer dayan, R. SK Gross (Shevet HaKehati vol. 1 §185) suggests, basing himself on Bach, that one should try to "mirror the real blowing". ...
This article quotes:
...the Siddur Alyiyat Eliyahu and the Machzor by the same editor, Mikrai
Kodesh, in both these siddurim the editor offers the following as the
source for l'Dovid: "Sha'arei Tefilah which attributes this custom to
R. Hayyim Kohen, a student of the AriZa"L, Shem Tov Koton."
As to why it is connected see this article which ...
Mateh Levi is a classic peirush, and there's a copy of Selichos with it at http://beta.hebrewbooks.org/23516, although a lot of the pages have ink blots or something that make them difficult to read.
There's also the Be'er Yaakov selichos (http://beta.hebrewbooks.org/49117 according to Minhag Lita, and http://beta.hebrewbooks.org/49921 according to Minhag ...
Rabbi Paltiel explains here (audio link) that this parable was developed by the Ba'al HaTanya in order to resolve a specific difficulty with the Arizal's statement that Elul is a time of the revelation the 13 attributes of mercy.
The original source is in Likkutei Torah here:
והנה נודע שבאלול הוא זמן התגלות י"ג מדות הרחמים, ולהבין זה כי למה הם ימות החול ...
Dose of Halacha points out that the custom is only to avoid them on Rosh Hashana itself.
The Rema (OC 583:2) writes that many have the custom to avoid eating nuts on Rosh Hashana. One reason for this is because אגוז is the same gematria as חט, sin (minus the א – the way it is spelled in Talmud Yerushalmi). Similar to the various simanim we eat on Rosh ...
Chovos HaLevovos – Rabbeinu Bachya ibn Paquda (Early 11th Century). Arguably the most important mussar work of all time, the Chovos HaLevovos is divided into ten Shearim (“Gates”).
For Ellul perhapes
Shaar HaTeshuva (“Gate of Repentance”) – on repentance.
Shaar Cheshbon HaNefesh (“Gate of Self-Accounting”) – on the importance of introspection and self-...
I am learning Nesiv HaTeshuva, by the Maharal. Nesivos Olam is the Maharal's "mussar sefer" according to his introduction, and Nesiv HaTeshuva is the section about teshuva. It talks about the nature of Teshuva, and is therefore helpful in appreciating the significance of Teshuva.
Apparently this is one of the times that nusach sfard is correct in keeping the original minhag. The Ramma 581 siff one says to blow shofar in the erev. The Mishna Berurah when tagging on the minhag to say lidovid mentions that erev is after mincha. The Chayei Adam and Aruch Hashulchan say the same. The Igros Moshe in O'ch part 4 siman 21 ois 5 explains the ...
Chabadpedia has an article.
מעת אשר נתפרסם אשר יום השמונה עשר בחודש אלול הוא יום ההולדת של הבעש"ט
ושל רבינו הזקן - נהגו, בכמה מקומות ובפרט בבתי כנסיות חב"ד, לעשות אותו
יום-התוועדות בסיפור מעשי צדיקים, חיזוק בדרכי החסידים בכלל ואהבת ישראל
בפרט וקבלת החלטות בקביעות עתים ללימוד התורה - הנגלה והנסתר. בהתעוררות
מיוחדה חוגגים יום הולדת זה בבית הרב, ...
Likkutei Mahariach vol III quotes from Siddur R. Shabtai (R. Shabtai of Rașcov) that this psalm contains allusions to the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy, as evidenced by the thirteen mentions of the Tetragrammaton which it contains. It is thus appropriate for this time of year.
(According to Wikipedia this siddur existed in manuscript and was used as a source ...
It’s unclear from the question itself, but since you tagged this elul, I assume you mean the selichos said during the last week of Elul? In that case, my Artscroll Nusach Lita seems to be the volume you’re looking for.
The volume numbers the Selichos 1-100. In their Table of Contents (p. IX-XI) they have all the Selichos ordered by day, and they also have ...
They start after Rosh chodesh.
Starting after Rosh Hodesh Elul, Sephardic Jews around the world wake up in the early morning to recite the Selichot which consist of special prayers and poems.
R' Ephraim Greenblatt writes (1:394) that there a few reasons for why we blow the Shofar.
1) Tur and Rosh quoting Pirkei Deraabi Eliezer - it was blown in the desert when Moshe went up Mt Sinai to get the 2nd luchos
2) Tur - to confuse the Satan
3) Rav Kook - Just as we need to start learning the Halachos of Pesach 30 days earlier, so too we need to ...
Orhhot Tzadiqim (a.k.a. Sefer HaMiddot) by Unknown
Mesillat Yesharim ("Path of the Just") by HaRav Moshe Hayim from Luzzato
Generally, I find books of mussar (i.e. character development) to assist in teshuvah.