Although I can't vouch for the Jewish Publication Society translation of the entire Tanach, they have the full English translate available as a downloadable PDF here. I would strongly encourage you to consider taking a few minutes to utilize one of the options in the comments to your question as Sefaria and Rav Aryeh Kaplan are phenomenal resources.
What you're looking for is Yesodei HaTorah, which is a compilation by Rav Ahron Lopiansky of the words of the Rishonim which he feels are fundamental to our faith, organized by the parsha.
You can see the first 150 pages of Volume 1 (Bereishis, Shemos) here and Volume 2 (Vayikra, Bamidbar, Devarim) here.
Yes there are several, here are some options:
The Jastrow - You can access it online here.
The Practical Talmud Dictionary by Yitzhak Frank
The Ohr Sameach Gemara Companion by Rabbi Dovid Kaplan
Aiding Talmudic Study by Rabbi Aryeh Carmel
You can also find some common words and key concepts here