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36

Yes, there is a history of Jewish communities in Arab countries relying on the Muslim call to prayer for their own praying times. For one such example, here is the Ben Ish Hai, (Hacham Yosef Haim) who lived from 1832-1909 in Baghdad, and who refers to the maghrab (an Islamic prayer-time called after sunset) in various places: Ben Ish Hai, Year 1, Vayakhel ...


33

Maimonides describes the qualifications of a Jewish prophet. He also describes how to discern a prophet who appears to meet the qualifications, but still is shown to not be an authentic prophet. Among them: Therefore, if a prophet arises and attempts to dispute Moses' prophecy by performing great signs and wonders, we should not listen to him. We know ...


25

If a non-Jew slaughters an animal, it is not kosher. (Mishna Chullin 1:1 [English on p. 36 of this .PDF], Rambam Shechita 4:11 [English translation], Shuchan Aruch YD 2:1 In fact, I know of no authority who has ever argued on this point.)


24

There are many reasons why Muhammad could not have been a true prophet, according to Jewish belief. I'll summarize at the top of this answer and then drill down into particulars. Because of Bilaam's wickedness, as emblematic of the wickedness of gentile prophets, God removed prophecy from the gentiles (Midrash Tanchuma, Balak, siman 1). Muhammad was born ...


23

The Rambam in his אגרת השמד says outward acceptance of Islam is not ייהרג ואל יעבור. On the other hand, the Radvaz quotes the Ritva as saying that this is ייהרג ואל יעבור. According to the Rambam, outward acceptance of Islam is not ייהרג ואל יעבור because Islam is not עבודה זרה, and even though it is heretical because it denies the Torah, one does not have ...


23

God's further comments in Genesis 17 and 21 clarify that Isaac is the sole descendant who would be the bearer of the covenant. (See, for example, 21:12 and 17:19-21.)


23

It is very considerate of a Muslim to care about helping Jewish people protect the laws of kashrut. I assume it is because the Muslim is motivated by fear of Heaven and care for a fellow human being. There is no known problem in Kosher law which would restrict Muslims from contact with Kosher bakery goods. (to my knowledge) Thanks for asking.


20

No. Prof. Eliezer Segal, in an essay entitled "Monkey Business," discussing the unfortunate contemporary phenomenon of "Islamicist clerics" preaching that Jews, generally, are descended from apes and pigs, says that there is no Jewish source to be found for this story: Unfortunately, in all the vast stores of ancient rabbinic literature, no text has yet ...


19

As Dov F has noted, the argument over praying in a mosque is now split between R. Ovadia Yosef and the Tzitz Eliezer. Please see the update below regarding the original Rambam responsa that is referred to by R. Ovadia. The Tzitz Eliezer writes against praying in a mosque in his responsa Volume 14, #91: ולמדנו מכאן שהקדשים של כותים וגם המשוגע של ...


17

Normative halacha (SA YD 2:1, and Simla Chadasha 2:1) both state unequivocally that the shechita of a non-Jew is forbidden (biblically). See here for why I care so much about the Simla Chadasha. However, the opinion of the Rambam (mentioned in other answers, hilchos shechita in 4:11-12) is that gentile slaughter is only biblically prohibited when that ...


14

Regarding conversion to Judaism in general, the answers to this question (mentioned by DoubleAA in the comments here) provide ample coverage. I recommend that you read them all, but here are some main points: Jewish Law provides a mechanism for people who are not members of the Jewish Nation to become members - conversion. It's not easy, and it's actually ...


14

Coming in late to the party, so this just comes to reinforce Yishai's answer, but I feel compelled to mention the Rambam's "Iggeret Teyman". Background: The "Epistle to Yemen" was written by Maimonides back in 1172, specifically to answer the rabbis of the Jewish community in Yemen who were being forced to convert to Islam. There was apparently a self-...


14

Textual indicators abound for the eternal and immutable nature of the Torah. Besides examples provided in other answers, here are a couple more examples: Even all that the LORD hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the LORD gave commandment, and onward throughout your generations (B'midbar 15:23). And thou shalt keep His statutes,...


14

The Talmud (Sanhedrin 99b) says that one who is mevazeh a Torah Sage has no place in the World to Come. Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh Deah 334:43) lists this as the first of 24 reasons why a person can be excommunicated, even after the Sage passed away. As discussed in the commentaries there, the Sage has to be of a certain stature for it to reach that point. I ...


14

Besides the main issue of God's explicit identification of Isaac for this inheritance, already conveyed in DoubleAA's answer, note that Islam is a belief system whose creation came way after the events described in Genesis, and one that doesn't have any special status in Judaism. Therefore, it's impossible that Judaism would consider the subject of verses in ...


14

Having grown up in Egypt and knowing Arabic, I can tell you that Jews (like Muslims) freely use "Allah" in conversation to refer to God, although it is frequently replaced by "Rabbena" (Our Master). God is usually addressed directly as "Ya Rabb" (O Master).


13

No more so than the belief that we are all G-d's children. Ezra is, however, compared to Moses (Sanhedrin, bottom of 21b; See also Yad Rama ad loc Sanhedrin 36a and Gittin 59a (comparing Ezra to Moses as a national leader and the greatest Torah scholar of his generation).


11

As Mark Twain (supposedly) said, history may not repeat itself, but it sure does rhyme. Lo and behold, there was Islamic extremism 800 years ago, when Rabbi Moses Maimonides was alive -- and he left a paper trail. If you were to open up the Yad HaChazaka (his code of law), it would appear that if there is a time when there is a concerted effort to wipe out ...


8

It's not so much "reject the Torah" as shorthand for "reject the traditional Jewish interpretation of the Torah, including to what extent it is binding today." Maimonides, Laws of Repentance 3:17 ג,יז שלושה הן הכופרים בתורה: האומר שאין התורה מעם ה', אפילו פסוק אחד, אפילו תיבה אחת--אם אמר משה אמרו מפי עצמו, הרי זה כופר בתורה; וכן הכופר בפירושה, והיא ...


8

In his Igerret Hashmad he teaches that Jews forcibly converted to Islam are not automatically or necessarily heretics. However he also limits this to the case presented to him and says that even in that situation martyrdom or fleeing is an option. http://thejewishchronicles.com/maimonides-iggeret-ha-shemad/ http://www.oxfordchabad.org/templates/blog/...


8

The two questions that are nearly duplicates of this discuss whether a person is considered from the perspective of Halachah to be Jewish if he converts to another religion, and what the person's status is generally. But they don't, IMO, really address this specific problem. Here's the short answer: No. Here's the more complex answer: No. Unless you mean ...


8

No, there are no extant texts from Jewish scholars on meeting Mohammed. There has been much academic scholarship on the Jewish presence of Saudia Arabia during the formation of Islam. A good place to begin is The Jews of Arab Lands by the brilliant scholar Norman Stillman. But the history is complicated and this is a serious question, so the long answer that ...


8

There has certainly been some cross-pollination of ideas over the years, e.g. certain moral lessons that you'd see in the classical Jewish philosophical work Hovot HaLevavot also appear in the Hadith. And as Islam is clearly a monotheistic faith, it avoids the problems posed by laws about "idols" or "pagans." (E.g. halacha has a lot of problems with a Jew ...


8

You could call him "cousin". That could be a nice way to emphasize the relationship between Jews and Muslims as descendents of Abraham. "Friend" would also be appropriate. I'm not exactly sure about Muslim protocol, but for Jews, it is not necessary to use a word for him, and as havarka says, you could simply call him by his first name or Mr. Last Name, ...


8

Yes. Jews killed many prophets. And here is a proof from 1 Kings 19 (14). Then the Lord spoke his word to him: “Elijah! Why are you here?” 10 He answered, “Lord God All-Powerful, I have always served you as well as I could. But the people of Israel have broken their agreement with you, destroyed your altars, and killed your prophets with swords. ...


8

Rambam calls God Allah, for example in Sefer Hamitzvos, Negative Commandment 5 (Kapach, p. 183), “Worshiping any other than Allah”. כל מא יעבד מן דון אללה כל מה שנעבד מבלעדי ה׳ Parenthetically, God was also referred to by other names in Judeo-Arabic. For example, at the beginning of the sixth maamar in Emunos Vedeos (Kapach, p. 193), R’ Saadia Gaon ...


7

This interesting research paper in the Encyclopedia of Jews in the Muslim world discusses the historical account of the debates and polmeics between muslims and Jews. I could find some debates which were based on Alī ibn Mūsā al-Riḍā(d. 818) a prominent Muslim scholar, reportedly engaged in a public disputation with a Christian patriarch and a Jewish ...


7

According to the historian Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam : In general, Muslim polemicists pay little attention to the relatively insignificant Jew. Insofar as they deign to discuss the superseded religions, they are far more concerned with the Christians who, as the bearers of a competing proselytizing religion and the masters of a rival ...


7

Although all agree that the Torah, as a practical matter, will not change, there is a disagreement between the Rambam and others (e.g. Sefer HaIkkarim 3:16) if this is an inherent quality, and thus a fundamental aspect of belief, or just something that G-d decided. In addition, within G-d's commandments, there is a concept of ניתנה תורה, ונתחדשה הלכה - when ...


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