The idea of Shabbos originated at Ma'asei Bereishis. (Creation). The Jews accepted the Shabbos 2448 years later.
The Shmoneh Esrei (actually, the Amidah) of each tefillah represents a different approach to Shabbos.
A. Ma'ariv refers to haShem's Creation; therefore, it starts "Atta Kidashta" this is like a heading. then we go on to say
- " ... Tachlis... Shamayim va'aretz...
- "V'kidashto ...."
These 3 phrases are direct references to the pesukim that are quoted immediately afterwards:
- "Va'y'chulu ha'shamayim v'ha'aretz
- "va'y'kadesh oso...
B. Shacharis refers to our acceptance of the Mitzva of Shabbos. And so the focus is on Moshe, who received the "Gift of his portion" and his receiving the two Luchos, (tablets) on which the Shabbos was one of the Dibros carved thereon.
C. Mincha refers to our Dedication to the Holiness of the Shabbos, recognizing that Our Shemirah (Observing) of Shabbos is tied inextricably to Kiddush Shem Shamayim (Sanctification of HaShem's Name)
As for YomTov, all Amidahs are essentially identical (except for references to Shabbos or Motzaei Shabbos) because the theme in all of them is Yetzias Mitrayim (the Exodus from Egypt).