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My Artscroll English Tanach, Shemot 21:37 goes like this:

"If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep or goat, and slaughter it or sell it, he shall pay five cattle in place of the ox, and four sheep in place of the sheep."

Why does it mention the restitution for the ox and the sheep but not the goat ?

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Actually, it does. Just not in a faulty translation.

In the Hebrew it says "Four tzon for a seh."

Tzon means flock of sheep-or-goats, and seh means a young sheep-or-goat.

So the penalty for a goat is 4x, just like for a sheep.

Similarly in Deut. 14:4. "The following animals are kosher. An ox, a sheep-seh, and a goat-seh ..."

The Passover "lamb" sacrifice, again, is actually "a young sheep or goat."

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