How many prophets are recognized by Judaism, and what were their names?
I found a website that claims the number of prophets is 124000. Is this true?
Are all of their speeches or writings documented? Where can I find them?
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The Talmud (Megillah 14a) writes:
הרבה נביאים עמדו להם לישראל, כפלים כיוצאי מצרים, אלא, נבואה שהוצרכה לדורות - נכתבה, ושלא הוצרכה - לא נכתבה.
Many prophets arose for the Jews: more than twice the number of Jews in the Exodus [1200000, but this language is likely meant to be understood as a really, really big number]. However, those prophesies which were needed for future generations were recorded while those that were not needed for future generations were not recorded.
So there were a whole lot of prophets in history. The 48 men and 7 women who are recorded as prophets are (as listed in Rashi to that piece of Talmud):
Guide for the Perplexed Chapter 45 is very relevant to this. You should read the entire chapter to get the full idea, but essentially Maimonides says that there are various levels of prophecy, not all of which qualify the recipient as an official prophet. Additionally, one can move between levels – at one point he can be in one category but he can then move up or move down. Thus, there is no real way to give a definitive number of prophets.
Some of the full-fledged prophets named by Maimonides there are:
Some of those mentioned explicitly as not being full-fledged prophets are: