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I am doing research on the different approaches and styles of davening, i have heard about specifically not davening out loud, and i have heard of minhagim that say to specifically daven out loud.

what does halacha, and mefarshim say about this? (Past and contemporary sources are welcome)

(Example, i had heard that a complaint of the misnagdim against the chassidim was that they would daven out loud. is this accurate? is there a basis for either position?)

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    Hi Targum and thanks for another interesting question. What do you mean by daven? Amida or anything else from the formal service? Personal prayer?
    – Rabbi Kaii
    May 7, 2023 at 16:04
  • I think its more discussed in halacha regarding the parts which are known to be said quietly (such as amidah). My question is more general, on the whole subject, such as, i think the minhag in Karlin-Stolin is to daven out loud, id like to find some sources for that minhag)
    – The Targum
    May 7, 2023 at 16:11
  • Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/73551/…
    – Rabbi Kaii
    May 7, 2023 at 16:18
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    sefaria.org/I_Samuel.1.13
    – Double AA
    May 7, 2023 at 17:29
  • hebrewbooks.org/…
    – Chatzkel
    May 7, 2023 at 19:11

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Shulhan Arukh O'h 101:2 is possek:

ולא יתפלל בלבו לבד אלא מחתך הדברים בשפתיו ומשמיע לאזניו בלחש ולא ישמיע קולו ואם אינו יכול לכוין בלחש מותר להגביה קולו וה"מ בינו לבין עצמו אבל בצבור אסור דאתי למטרד ציבורא: הגה ואם משמיע קולו בביתו כשמתפלל כדי שילמדו ממנו בני ביתו מות' (טור):

And one should not only pray in one's heart, but one must actually enunciate the words with one lips and let them be heard in a whisper tone by one's own ears, [however] one should not let one's voice be heard [fully during the Amidah]. [However,] if one is unable to direct one's intention [to the Amidah] while in a whisper tone, one is allowed to raise one's voice. And this is [only] when one is praying privately, but [if one is praying] with the congregation, it is forbidden, as this is a nuisance for the congregation. Gloss: If one is letting one's voice be heard in one's home when praying so that the members of one's household will learn from one, it is permitted (Tur).

The aharonim (See Mishna Brura there) bring that the Zohar could say that it's better not to hear himself; but it seems not to be clear, and better to do as the Shulhan Arukh.

It still can be possible that if the minhag is to pray with raised voice even in public, there is no more "מטרד ציבורא" (nuisance for the congregation).

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