You will get some reward for giving charity. I'm not sure that you will find a definitive answer on whether that will necessarily be a reward in this world (as opposed to the afterlife) or more specifically whether it will affect your business. However, it would make sense that it should do so, because we know that God rewards people in-kind for the type of good deeds that they do, so if you are trying to improve your financial position, helping others financially makes sense if you are trying to be rewarded in that way. You are also demonstrating that you are using the resources that God has given you in a positive way, which may also help you be rewarded with more.
I don't think it necessarily needs to be a Jewish charity for it to work, but there may be extra reward for that. There are other factors to bear in mind as well. For Jewish people, there is a whole hierarchy of these. I'm not sure if they also affect non-Jews giving, but it makes sense that they should do so. The way in which you give may also be a factor - giving in person generously in a way that makes the recipient feel good about themselves is considered to be ideal. In fact, one of the best forms of charity is to help someone become more financially self-sufficient rather than needing to rely on charity. This can take the form of things like an interest-free loan to help them start a business - in some situations it may be kinder to someone to lend them money than to give it to them as this is often better for their self-esteem.
There may be other things that are worth considering as well. Charity is not limited to money, but you can give your time as well - eg. volunteering or other acts of kindness that help people or improve the world in some way. Praying is also something that is not limited to Jews - you can ask God for whatever you want, whenever you want, wherever you are, and this is a good thing to get into the habit of doing, even if you are asking for something fairly trivial. There are no special words that you need for this - just ask in your own language.
With all of these things, your intent is likely to be an important factor. There is nothing wrong with doing something for the reward, but it is even better if you have in mind that you want it to have the effect of making you a better person and bringing you closer to God.