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18

You sure you want to open up this can of worms? :-) Here's the situation. There is no explicit mention of any such concept in the Torah, Talmud, or adressed by the Rambam, the Rosh, the Tur, or the Shulchan Aruch. The first time this really became an issue when during WWII when yeshiva students (notably those from Mir and Chachmei Lublin) relocated from ...


13

The Talmud (Pesachim 54b) states that only for Tisha bAv must we be stringent for Bein Hashemashot. There is an opinion in Rishonim that only regarding the Bein Hashemashot at the beginning of the day is Tisha bAv unique, but all fasts require being stringent at the end because we have to wait until it is certainly night to uproot the current status (chazaka)...


11

Shulchan Aruch O.C. 672:2 שכח או הדד ולא הדליק [....] ומיהו הני מילי לכתחילה; אבל אם עבר זה הזמן ולא הדליק, מדליק והולך כל הלילה. ואם עבר כל הלילה ולא הדליק, אין לו תשלומין If one forgot and didn't light, or purposefully didn't light [....] however, this is only lechatchila; if [the end of sunset] has passed and one didn't light, they should light for the ...


11

Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 47:13 rules that one who wakes up early to learn should make birchot hatorah before he starts learning, even if that is before the start of daylight. One does not repeat the blessings after it becomes light.


10

Only Yom Kippur and Tisha b'Av are 25-hour fasts. The others are minor fasts, from dawn (first light, before sunrise) until nightfall (full dark). The minor fasts are: Fast of Gedaliah (3 Tishrei) 10 Tevet Fast of Esther (13 Adar) Fast of the Firstborn (for those to whom it applies) (14 Nisan) 17 Tamuz You can read more about these fasts at Judaism 101.


9

YU Torah online has a good summary. The subject is disputed by the Vilna Gaon and Rabbeinu Tam. The first allows only up till sunset; the second up to when the stars appear. Mishna Berurah 233:14, limits the leniency to recite Mincha until tzeit hakochavim. He cites the opinion of P'ri Megadim, Eshel Avraham 233:7, who rules that one cannot ...


9

Ultimate Zmanim for iOS has that feature. With Zmanim Alarms, Ultimate Zmanim can remind you of important zmanim throughout the day. Shema, Tefila, and weekly candle lighting are all covered. (To forewarn the question, on Android, Halachic Times is an equivalent).


8

It is well know that there is a disagreement whether one should light Channuka candles at sunset or at tzet hakochavim. However, the basis for this disagreement is less known, and this I will try to clarify. The Gemara (Shabbat 21b) states that one should light candles "mishtishka hachama". This expression appears in other places in shas as well including in ...


8

Kitzur Shulcah Aruch1 17:1 says of the Sh'ma: After a third of the day has passed, one should recite the Shema alone, without the blessings, because it is forbidden to recite the blessings beyond this time. The Shema itself, though, may be recited the entire day. (Other authorities also allow the recitation of the blessings throughout the day.) A ...


8

The proprietors of goDaven were kind enough to supply me, for the purposes of answering this question, with their table of 5,960 mincha and/or maariv services. I used a Perl script to extract 1,046 where weekday mincha both preceded maariv and was listed as a certain number of minutes before sunset, p'lag, tzes, or candle-lighting time. Because some times ...


8

Rabbi Yosef Avraham Heller, the Rosh Kollel of Crown Heights, Brooklyn and former member of the Beis Din there, wrote a essay explaining the Halachic justification for davening after Chatzos, published in "Kobetz Beis Chayenu" 11 Nissan 5760 pg. 28. The crunch of the explanation is as follows: The Gemora (Brochos 26a) states that, "He may go on praying [...


8

As long as we stay well (Stockholm is 7°/800 km/500 mi) south* of the polar circle, there will always be a sh'kia and a netz . Therefore, all zmanim can be calculated. Even a tzeis and an alos can be calculated by relying on the opinion that they occur a fixed number of minutes* (e.g. 72) after shkia and before tzeis. Let's take some practical examples: On ...


8

According to Rabbi Shlomo Fisher on ohr.edu, someone flying is exempt from lighting, because the rule is one candle per household ("נר איש וביתו;" Shabbos 21b); and if there's no one at home then there is no obligation to light.


8

The Be'er Hetev that you quote says that if Saturday night is before the third of the month, Kiddush Levana should be pushed off to the next Saturday night because it will still be before the 11th of the month (and we don't usually push off Kiddush Levana to Saturday night if it will be after the 11th of the month for fear of a few days of clouds). But he ...


8

No it cannot. In fact, one cannot even recite shema twice in the period between alot hashachar and hanetz hachamah to count for the evening and morning readings. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 58:5: אם נאנס ולא קרא ק"ש ערבית עד שעלה עמוד השחר כיון שעדיין לא הנץ החמה קורא ק"ש ויוצא בה ידי חובת קריאת שמע ערבית ואם היה אנוס באותה שעה לצאת לדרך מקום גדודי חיה ...


7

The Mishna Berura rules that one should not start mincha if they will not finish Shemoneh Esreh before shkia (sunset), but many rely on Rabenu Tam's time and daven considerably later. I was told by my rav to omit tachanun if davening later than allowed by the M"B. Shachris can technically be davened until chatzos (halachic midday) but it really ought to be ...


7

The Shulchan Aruch (OC 89:5) discusses what to do if you were eating before dawn (alot hashachar; the earliest time for Shacharit), and then dawn happened (and now you are obligated in Shacharit): must you stop eating or not. It seems from here that you are allowed to eat so long as dawn has not happened. The Mishna Berura there notes that if the eating is ...


7

He should say Shema absolutely immediately as the printed time may not be completely exact. (See ShA OC 46:9 with commentaries. The assumption there is that one who can't say the blessings of Shema then (because he needs to say them just prior to his Amida which must be said with a Minyan) should still say Shema at its proper time without its blessings even ...


7

In Talmud Bavli Rosh Hashanna 20b, R' Zeira quotes R' Nachman as saying: כ"ד שעי מכסי סיהרא לדידן שית מעתיקא ותמני סרי מחדתא לדידהו שית מחדתא ותמני סרי מעתיקא For 24 hours, the [moon] light is covered: For us [in Babylon] - 6 of the old [month] and 18 of the new [month]; for them [in Jerusalem] - 6 of the new and 18 of the old. (Translation mine, ...


7

Regarding Havdalah during the week, I believe the reason why you find the Rebbe doing is so is because he actually keeps Shabbas until Tuesday. I heard this from a well-known story that the Gedolim weren't sure of this minhag and sent Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky to speak to the Rebbe and although he didn't know the source for the Rebbe's custom, after the ...


7

From http://ravbaruch.com/AskTheRabbi.asp?QID=92#_ftn2: Reportedly, Rav S. Z. Auerbach z’’l and Rav Moshe Feinstein z’’l ruled that if one experiences two sunrises on the same day of the week, one is obligated in only one tefilloh. The time cycle for tefilloh is once a day, regardless of how many nightfall’s and sunrises there are on that day. Since they ...


7

Tractate Brachos of Talmud of Babylon 3b says this is a dispute between 2 tanaim (Rabbis in the period of the Mishna just under 2 millenia ago) whether there are 3 or 4 watches in the night: תנו רבנן ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה דברי רבי רבי נתן אומר שלש The Sages taught in a Tosefta: The night is comprised of four watches; this is the statement of Rabbi ...


6

You might first ask, Rabbi Ben-Zion Firrer asked, whether the mitzvahs are required at all in space. After all, the Torah says that you should do the commandments "all of the days which you are alive on this earth" (Deut. 12:1), maybe we aren't obligated to perform the commandments in space or on the moon. Rabbi Shlomo Goren, in an interview published in ...


6

The Shulchan Aruch (551:4) rules regarding both the case of Tisha b'Av on Saturday and Tisha b'Av on Sunday that there is no mourning period and some say (Yesh Omrim) that there is mourning the entire preceding week. Generally when the Shulchan Aruch quotes two opinions and only the latter is prefaced by 'some say', the halacha follows the former opinion (...


6

Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igrot Moshe OC 1:168) holds that in general one can have a wedding on the night of 17 Tammuz when necessary, but says in that same teshuva that for sure when the fast is Nidche that you can't have a wedding Saturday night. (I assume all other restrictions follow.)


6

Yoel's answer describes until when one can pray. I'll just add that if one missed the right time due to circumstances beyond his control then he can usually make up the missed amida (sh'mone esre) by reciting an extra amida after his next one; e.g., if he missed mincha he can say two amidos at maariv. (This does not apply to a missed musaf (and I'm not sure ...


6

From: http://www.torah.org/advanced/weekly-halacha/5757/chaysara.html One should be extremely careful to finish davening Mincha by Shkiah, sunset, since many early Poskim (12) hold that it is forbidden to daven Mincha after that time (13). It is better to daven on time without a Minyan than to daven after the proper time with a Minyan (14). B'dieved, one ...


6

NOTE: both of these are only partial answers; the 1st may be against the Rashba and the 2nd is disputed First Answer The simplest answer might be that the times of getting up and going to sleep are based on when non-Jews, who are exempt from Shema, wake up (after all, non-Jews do make up the vast majority of the human population). Rishonim (see Tos. 2b) ...


6

If you really need to, you can say Maariv and Havdalah (omitting the blessing on the candle) from Plag HaMincha (1.25 hours before sunset) (ShA OC 293:3) just as much as you can say Maariv and Kiddush after that time on Friday. The blessing on the candle can be recited separately after nightfall. All labor remains forbidden until after nightfall (even after ...


6

Interestingly the Pitchei Tshuva on SA YD 89:1, in the context of eating meat after milk, brings an opinion from Beer Heitev shel Maharit that these could be shaot zemaniot. He quickly writes the Pri Megadim, Hokhmat Adam and Knesset Hagedolah disagree and the minhag is not to use shaot zemaniot. עבה"ט של מהרי"ט ז"ל אם הם שעות זמניות. ועיין כו"פ ופמ"ג ...


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