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18

You sure you want to open up this can of worms? :-) Here's the situation. There is no explicit mention of any such concept in the Torah, Talmud, or adressed by the Rambam, the Rosh, the Tur, or the Shulchan Aruch. The first time this really became an issue when during WWII when yeshiva students (notably those from Mir and Chachmei Lublin) relocated from ...


13

The Talmud (Pesachim 54b) states that only for Tisha bAv must we be stringent for Bein Hashemashot. There is an opinion in Rishonim that only regarding the Bein Hashemashot at the beginning of the day is Tisha bAv unique, but all fasts require being stringent at the end because we have to wait until it is certainly night to uproot the current status (chazaka)...


11

Shulchan Aruch O.C. 672:2 שכח או הדד ולא הדליק [....] ומיהו הני מילי לכתחילה; אבל אם עבר זה הזמן ולא הדליק, מדליק והולך כל הלילה. ואם עבר כל הלילה ולא הדליק, אין לו תשלומין If one forgot and didn't light, or purposefully didn't light [....] however, this is only lechatchila; if [the end of sunset] has passed and one didn't light, they should light ...


11

Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 47:13 rules that one who wakes up early to learn should make birchot hatorah before he starts learning, even if that is before the start of daylight. One does not repeat the blessings after it becomes light.


10

The reason why we light candles a few minutes early (18 minutes) is in order to avoid any possibility of starting Shabbat late. Think of it as a train leaving the station. If you're one minute late, you missed it. By the way, though most communities light Shabbat candles 18 minutes before sunset, local custom may vary. For instance in Jerusalem, the custom ...


10

Only Yom Kippur and Tisha b'Av are 25-hour fasts. The others are minor fasts, from dawn (first light, before sunrise) until nightfall (full dark). The minor fasts are: Fast of Gedaliah (3 Tishrei) 10 Tevet Fast of Esther (13 Adar) Fast of the Firstborn (for those to whom it applies) (14 Nisan) 17 Tamuz You can read more about these fasts at Judaism 101.


9

I live in Sydney Australia and I can say definitively that yes the custom is to stay up all night and learn on Shavuot night. I have never heard the suggestion that staying up all night is related to the time of sunrise/sunset at that time of year. I have many friends in South Africa and can say that they have the same custom as well. My inclination is that ...


9

Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Laws of Prayer, Chapter 1) outlines the basic obligations of prayer. He writes that originally there was no fixed prayers, only an obligation to pray somewhat every day. Everyone would pray different amounts based on how 'inspired' they were. After the destruction of the Jewish Kingdom by the Babylonians (586 BCE), the Sages of ...


9

YU Torah online has a good summary. The subject is disputed by the Vilna Gaon and Rabbeinu Tam. The first allows only up till sunset; the second up to when the stars appear. Mishna Berurah 233:14, limits the leniency to recite Mincha until tzeit hakochavim. He cites the opinion of P'ri Megadim, Eshel Avraham 233:7, who rules that one cannot ...


9

Ultimate Zmanim for iOS has that feature. With Zmanim Alarms, Ultimate Zmanim can remind you of important zmanim throughout the day. Shema, Tefila, and weekly candle lighting are all covered. (To forewarn the question, on Android, Halachic Times is an equivalent).


8

It is well know that there is a disagreement whether one should light Channuka candles at sunset or at tzet hakochavim. However, the basis for this disagreement is less known, and this I will try to clarify. The Gemara (Shabbat 21b) states that one should light candles "mishtishka hachama". This expression appears in other places in shas as well including in ...


8

The proprietors of goDaven were kind enough to supply me, for the purposes of answering this question, with their table of 5,960 mincha and/or maariv services. I used a Perl script to extract 1,046 where weekday mincha both preceded maariv and was listed as a certain number of minutes before sunset, p'lag, tzes, or candle-lighting time. Because some times ...


8

Kitzur Shulcah Aruch1 17:1 says of the Sh'ma: After a third of the day has passed, one should recite the Shema alone, without the blessings, because it is forbidden to recite the blessings beyond this time. The Shema itself, though, may be recited the entire day. (Other authorities also allow the recitation of the blessings throughout the day.) A ...


8

Rabbi Yosef Avraham Heller, the Rosh Kollel of Crown Heights, Brooklyn and former member of the Beis Din there, wrote a essay explaining the Halachic justification for davening after Chatzos, published in "Kobetz Beis Chayenu" 11 Nissan 5760 pg. 28. The crunch of the explanation is as follows: The Gemora (Brochos 26a) states that, "He may go on praying [...


8

As long as we stay well (Stockholm is 7°/800 km/500 mi) south* of the polar circle, there will always be a sh'kia and a netz . Therefore, all zmanim can be calculated. Even a tzeis and an alos can be calculated by relying on the opinion that they occur a fixed number of minutes* (e.g. 72) after shkia and before tzeis. Let's take some practical examples: On ...


8

According to Rabbi Shlomo Fisher on ohr.edu, someone flying is exempt from lighting, because the rule is one candle per household ("נר איש וביתו;" Shabbos 21b); and if there's no one at home then there is no obligation to light.


8

The Be'er Hetev that you quote says that if Saturday night is before the third of the month, Kiddush Levana should be pushed off to the next Saturday night because it will still be before the 11th of the month (and we don't usually push off Kiddush Levana to Saturday night if it will be after the 11th of the month for fear of a few days of clouds). But he ...


8

No it cannot. In fact, one cannot even recite shema twice in the period between alot hashachar and hanetz hachamah to count for the evening and morning readings. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 58:5: אם נאנס ולא קרא ק"ש ערבית עד שעלה עמוד השחר כיון שעדיין לא הנץ החמה קורא ק"ש ויוצא בה ידי חובת קריאת שמע ערבית ואם היה אנוס באותה שעה לצאת לדרך מקום גדודי חיה ...


7

Shabbat starts no later than sunset (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 293:2). Sunset is a subjective phenomenon describing the apparent descent of the Sun below the horizon. It happens because the Earth is round and rotates about its own axis much more quickly than it revolves around the Sun, so observers on its surface observe, once per rotation, their part of ...


7

The Mishna Berura rules that one should not start mincha if they will not finish Shemoneh Esreh before shkia (sunset), but many rely on Rabenu Tam's time and daven considerably later. I was told by my rav to omit tachanun if davening later than allowed by the M"B. Shachris can technically be davened until chatzos (halachic midday) but it really ought to be ...


7

The Shulchan Aruch (OC 89:5) discusses what to do if you were eating before dawn (alot hashachar; the earliest time for Shacharit), and then dawn happened (and now you are obligated in Shacharit): must you stop eating or not. It seems from here that you are allowed to eat so long as dawn has not happened. The Mishna Berura there notes that if the eating is ...


7

He should say Shema absolutely immediately as the printed time may not be completely exact. (See ShA OC 46:9 with commentaries. The assumption there is that one who can't say the blessings of Shema then (because he needs to say them just prior to his Amida which must be said with a Minyan) should still say Shema at its proper time without its blessings even ...


7

In Talmud Bavli Rosh Hashanna 20b, R' Zeira quotes R' Nachman as saying: כ"ד שעי מכסי סיהרא לדידן שית מעתיקא ותמני סרי מחדתא לדידהו שית מחדתא ותמני סרי מעתיקא For 24 hours, the [moon] light is covered: For us [in Babylon] - 6 of the old [month] and 18 of the new [month]; for them [in Jerusalem] - 6 of the new and 18 of the old. (Translation mine, ...


7

Regarding Havdalah during the week, I believe the reason why you find the Rebbe doing is so is because he actually keeps Shabbas until Tuesday. I heard this from a well-known story that the Gedolim weren't sure of this minhag and sent Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky to speak to the Rebbe and although he didn't know the source for the Rebbe's custom, after the ...


7

From http://ravbaruch.com/AskTheRabbi.asp?QID=92#_ftn2: Reportedly, Rav S. Z. Auerbach z’’l and Rav Moshe Feinstein z’’l ruled that if one experiences two sunrises on the same day of the week, one is obligated in only one tefilloh. The time cycle for tefilloh is once a day, regardless of how many nightfall’s and sunrises there are on that day. Since they ...


7

Tractate Brachos of Talmud of Babylon 3b says this is a dispute between 2 tanaim (Rabbis in the period of the Mishna just under 2 millenia ago) whether there are 3 or 4 watches in the night: תנו רבנן ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה דברי רבי רבי נתן אומר שלש The Sages taught in a Tosefta: The night is comprised of four watches; this is the statement of Rabbi ...


6

At least to some, yes, mountains do change what time Shabbos comes in. From Chabad.org: "...Palm Springs has special rules with regard to when Shabbat begins. This is due to the large mountain which is directly west of the city. I've been there for Shabbat myself and I can tell you that it does get darker there earlier than cities nearby. Although "...


6

This question is discussed by Rav Moshe (OC 1:97) The upshot is that, by the strict definition of law, sunset goes by when the sun dips below the horizon and is independent of the viewer. So for those on a mountain, halachic sunset would occur earlier that when they see the sun set. For those in a valley, it would be later. Nightfall is dependent on "...


6

It's because the world is Round! After I posted this correct anwer, the OP decided to change his question


6

Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igrot Moshe OC 1:168) holds that in general one can have a wedding on the night of 17 Tammuz when necessary, but says in that same teshuva that for sure when the fast is Nidche that you can't have a wedding Saturday night. (I assume all other restrictions follow.)


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