These fasts are counting from Nisan as the first month (the Jewish religious calendar).
The fast of the 4th month is 17 Tammuz.
The fast of the 5th month is 9 Av.
Here, the fast of the 7th month is Tzom Gedalia (usually observed on 3 Tishrei) although Yom Kippur also falls in the 7th month.
The fast of the 10th month is 10 Tevet.
These fasts commemorate ...
אֵלֶּה is a demonstrative pronoun, the plural of the singular demonstrative pronouns זֶה and זֹאת (masculine and feminine respectively). הָאֵלֶּה is the same word, but with the definite article attached to it.
הֵם is the third person masculine singular pronoun, the plural of הוּא, and הָהֵם is likewise the same word with the definite article attached to ...
I know that to christians, seeing the word lord is ambiguous, but it is the standard translation of the Tetragrammaton (for whatever reason). That exclusively (as far as I know) refers to G-d directly, not a title. A title might be something like Moshiach Hashem (The annointed one of G-d) but that is modified, not just a straight reference.
Regarding your ...
Read the Pesukim in context, with an assist from Rashi, and all will become clear.
וַיַּרְאֵ֗נִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל עֹמֵ֕ד לִפְנֵ֖י מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֑ה וְהַשָּׂטָ֛ן עֹמֵ֥ד עַל־יְמִינ֖וֹ לְשִׂטְנֽוֹ׃
And [Hashem] showed me [Zechariah] Yehoshua the Kohen Gadol standing before an angel of Hashem, and the Satan stood on his right to ...
Here is verse 12:
And you shall speak to him, saying, "So said the Lord of Hosts, saying: Behold a man whose name is the Shoot, who will spring up out of his place and build the Temple of the Lord.
and now 13:
And he shall build the Temple of the Lord, and he shall bear glory. And he shall sit and rule on his throne, and the priest shall be on his throne. ...
The commentary Radak offers two explanations:
ורחוקים. מגויי הארצות יבואו מארץ רחוקה לבנות בהיכל ה' כלומר להתנדב לבנין הבית ואפשר שהיה זה בימי הורדוס בבנין הגדול שבנה בבית המקדש וי"מ ורחוקים על ישראל המפוזרים בגלות בארץ רחוקה:
Non-Jews from distant lands will donate to the construction of the Temple. This could have happened in the time of King Herod ...
The literal translation would seem to be as you suggest. Here it is in the original Hebrew, with my translation:
גִּילִ֨י מְאֹ֜ד בַּת־צִיּ֗וֹן הָרִ֙יעִי֙ בַּ֣ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם הִנֵּ֤ה מַלְכֵּךְ֙ יָ֣בוֹא לָ֔ךְ צַדִּ֥יק וְנוֹשָׁ֖ע ה֑וּא עָנִי֙ וְרֹכֵ֣ב עַל־חֲמ֔וֹר וְעַל־עַ֖יִר בֶּן־אֲתֹנֽוֹת׃
Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion; shout, daughter of ...
It has nothing to to with the hands in the sense that they pretend was due to the Romans. In fact, Rashi says that the context is speaking about false prophets (verse 2). If it were talking about Jesus it would be calling him a false prophet. As we see in Rashi on 13:2
And also the prophets: The false prophets.
And one will say to him, "...
An article by the Campus Rabbi of Bar Ilan University states:
In his commentary to the Mishnah (Rosh Hashanah 1,3), Maimonides
states that the Jews in the Second Temple period fasted on Tishah
This was not a copier’s error. Indeed,
In the fifth chapter of Hilchot Ta'aniot, halachah 5, after Maimonides
listed the four fast days ...
The word in both of these verses is שַׁ֚בְתִּי (with the same cantilation, even), which is pronounced SHAVti, and means "I have returned."
The root is שוב - ShWB, and while a ו can drop out of roots like this one in many conjugations, as it does in שבתי, neither a ש nor a ב typically do. So, a conjugation that would end up getting pronounced "be-ti", ...
The Turei Even to Megillah (3a) writes that either there are simply contradictory views about who killed Ahav, or Hadadrimon and Naaman are the same person. See also S'fat Emmet there.
Regarding the context of interpreting the mourning as referring to Ahav, although the Bible doesn't reference his mourning, see here.
The Rambam says about the times of Moshiach that the whole world will be filled with knowledge of Hashem as the waters cover the sea. The Rambam also says that the only true existence is Hashem. In golus, nature masks Hashem to make it look like there is existence other than Hashem but when Moshiach comes the mask will be lifted and it will be clear to ...
Jeremiah 29:14 might add some insight into how the process might work:
יד. וְנִמְצֵאתִי לָכֶם נְאֻם יְהֹוָה וְשַׁבְתִּי אֶת שְׁבוּתְכֶם וְקִבַּצְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִכָּל הַגּוֹיִם וּמִכָּל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם שָׁם נְאֻם יְהֹוָה וַהֲשִׁבֹתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר הִגְלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִשָּׁם:
"And I will be found by you, says the L-rd, ...