14

According to the Ibn Ezra, Nineveh had previously been a righteous city, so they were given a chance to repent, whereas Sodom and Gomorrah didn't merit a prophet to warn them. Ibn Ezra, Jonah 1:2: והנה מצאנו כתוב היתה עיר גדולה לאלהים שהיו יריאים השם מקדם... ופירוש לאלהים כי היו יריאים השם הימים הקדמונים רק עתה בימי יונה החלו לעשות רע. ולולי זה ...


12

Your question assumes that there were guards blocking anyone from crossing from Judah to Israel. The background of the assumption is probably the following two sources: Sanhedrin 102a, according to which Jeroboam decreed that anyone who goes to Jerusalem would be killed הם העמיקו משלי אני אמרתי כל שאינו עולה לרגל עובר בעשה והם אמרו כל העולה לרגל ידקר ...


10

The only Rishon I saw who identifies the Dag Gadol in his commentary is [R Eliezer of Beaugency to Yonah 2:1][1], and he identifies it as a "בַלְיינְא וכיוצא בו", which is a baleine (etc.) in French (see also here) or a whale in English. Therefore, I find it very hard to believe that there is any issue with explaining it as such, and I would recommend that ...


8

They are synonyms. The latter is used per the GR"A (R' Elijah ben Shlomo Zalman Kremer, also known as the Vilna Gaon) to be a hint (remez) to the ego (the אני) - according to his exegesis, the entire story is an allegory for the journey of the soul in this world, and the אניה represents the body.


8

Malbim explains that ספינה (related to ספון, "concealed") is the lowest room of a ship (whereas אניה is the entire ship). Verse 5 is stressing that Yona descended to the lowest room so that he drown there. Were he higher in the ship, he reasoned, he may be thrown overboard and tossed on the waves until he reached land and survive.


7

Mishna Berura 135:34 says that on a fast day a Kohain or Levi should not get the Aliyah of Maftir. I do not see any reason why Yom Kippur should be different than other fast days.


7

Radak says: ואף על פי שעשה לו סוכה לצל, אולי יבשו עצי הסוכה, כי ישב שם עד מלאות לו ארבעים יום. And Mezudat David: כי צל הסוכה הוא דבר שאינו מתמיד, כי הולך ומתייבש מחום השמש; ולא כן הקיקיון, היונק רטיבות הארץ. Both explain the fronds Yonah put up dried out (Since he apperantly waited there for some time), and he then needed​ another solution.


6

More of a partial answer, really, but still a useful contribution. In Yonah, G-d gives a specific reason for having mercy on them. In Yonah 4:11, G-d says: Now should I not take pity on Nineveh, the great city, in which there are many more than one hundred twenty thousand people who do not know their right hand from their left, and many beasts as well? ...


6

Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Yalkut Yosef Mo'adim pg. 101) rules that a Cohen may be called up for Maftir Yonah: Kitzur Yalkut Yosef 622:9: כהן שזכה בקניית עליית מפטיר של מנחת יום הכפורים, כי נכספה וגם כלתה נפשו לקרוא בהפטרת יונה, יש לו על מה שיסמוך שיעלה לעליית מפטיר, אחר שקראו כהן ולוי. ובלבד שיאמר השליח צבור, ואף על פי שהוא כהן יעמוד למפטיר A Cohen ...


6

He certainly can. All that needs to happen is to have everyone else in the room be of the same lineage as himself, or at most only one member of a different lineage (Shulchan Aruch OC 135:12). Alternatively, if all he is interested in doing is reading it and not neccesarily getting the Aliyah, he can serve as the Baal Keriya for the Haftarah if the minyan is ...


5

Mikra (the TaNaCh), as opposed to Aggadaic Medrashim and Talmudic passages, are not allegories. Even when the verse is hinting a lesson, we learn that אין מקרא יוצא מידי פשוטו, the verse does not abandon its simple meaning. There are a few exceptions, though. Firstly, there is such a thing as exaggerations when that is a manner of speaking. A famous example ...


5

Does this mean that we, literally, should not feed animals (including Livestock and Pets, even Service Animals) on Yom Kippur or are animals not considered people (and are exempt from fasting) despite this line in the The Book? This line in Jonah is not discussing Yom Kippur. The entire book of Jonah is not discussing Yom Kippur. The fast discussed in Jonah ...


4

Yonah 2:7 To the bottom of the mountains I descended, the earth-its bars are closed on me forever; but You brought up my life from Gehinnom, O Lord, my God. Rashi says To the bottoms of the mountains I descended: To the end of the measure of the mountains fixed to the deep, I descended. And I said... When he was swallowed by the fish it brought ...


3

I don't see (in my Lublin-style Mikraos G'dolos) any commentary note how many days the Nineveh folks fasted. I'd have to assume, absent other knowledge, that they fasted until the end of the day the fast was proclaimed, or maybe only the entire next day. (That's what I'd do if an announcement were made in the king's name that everyone must fast, with no ...


3

According to the Maharal in Ohr Chadash (on Megillas Esther) it means that you fast at the end of the first day, the whole 24 hours of the second day and a part of the third.


3

Yonah didn't want to tell Nineveh to do teshuva, because he knew that if they would do teshuva (as they ended up doing), and then if the Jews don't do teshuva (and they had multiple prophets), they would get punished.


3

The people of Ninveh weren't Jewish. They weren't obligated in circumcision, and thus circumcision wouldn't do anything for them, spiritually. Circumcision is not a component of repentance. (Well, except for a Jew who was obligated and has so far opted not to do it.) The citizens of Ninveh instead accomplish repentance following the time-honored formula: by ...


3

There were probably a minimum of 10 good men left in Ninveh so He gave them the option to repent but there were not even 10 good men in Sodom and Gemora. This is learned by the discussion Avraham has with G-d where he tries to argue about not destroying Sodom and G.


3

The animals may have been involved in sin such as gilui arayot and avodah zara so although they must have been induced in doing sin, and were probabaly surrounded by sin, they too were made to repent. Their owners who helped commit the sins repented and made their animals fast too. BTW: It is interesting that Hashem argues with Yona about having pity on ...


2

They did not disregard Yonah's suggestion, they were trying to work out the best course of action. What could be perceived as them ignoring Yonah is actually them hesitating as they grappled with an ethical dilemma. In Rabbi Yosef Deutsch's book Let My Nation Be Warned (Feldheim - 2014) pp.61-62, working off the mefarshim (commentators), he creates a ...


2

R' Samson Raphael Hirsch says, in his extended commentary on Leviticus 16:10, that goats represent the God-given human power to resist, and that the Azazel goat used in the Yom Kippur service represents, specifically, the use of this power to (God forbid) selfishly resist God Himself. We have absolutely no use for this kind of resistance, so we send the goat ...


2

R. Saadia Gaon explains (Emunot V’Deiot 3:5) that Yonah had fulfilled his mission: If, furthermore, one were to ask, “But how was it that Jonah was chosen to carry out a mission from which he ran away, when it would seem that the All-Wise would not choose anyone who would disobey him?” I would answer that I have gone over the story of Jonah repeatedly and ...


2

God isn't justifying himself to Jonah, he is justifying himself to us, thousands of years after the fact. We read the story of Jonah on Yom Kippur afternoon to remind us of the importance of repentance. Note that the people of Nineveh do not convert to Judaism, they merely cease their evil ways. Jonah is one of the literary prophets, the prophets that ...


2

The Kli Yakar on that verse in Bereishit says that Yosef's action was done for a reason irrelevant to the people in Ninveh. According to the Kli Yakar (I'm summarizing from the text I found on sefaria.org), we find in the Torah text that the word for foreskin (orlah) is equated to the word cherpah (shame) and the word for famine (ra'av) is also equated with ...


2

In Otzar Hamidrashim there's a midrash called Divrei Hayamim Lemoshe which says: "...ויוליכוהו לנינוה העיר הגדולה, וימלוך פרעה על נינוה ד׳ מאות שנה." Translation: "...And they led him to Nineveh the great city, and Pharaoh ruled over Nineveh for 400 years." As it turns out, the majority of Midrash Vayosha is a compilation of other ...


1

The Da'at Mikra commentary (written by Elyakim Ben-Menachem) on this verse says that it means three full days (ie. 72 hours): ‮אִלו אמר שלשה ימים, לא היה במשמע שלשה ימים שלמים, אבל כשהוא אומר ימים ולילות, הרי ימים שלמים במשמע, כלומר: ששהה במעי הדג שלש יממות. If it said "days", it wouldn't have implied three full days, but as it says "days&...


1

I found this reference online (italics mine): Pirke deRabbi Eliezer 42 Rabbi Nechunia, son of Hakanah, said: Know the power of repentance. Come and see from Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who rebelled most grievously against the Rock, the Most High, as it is said, Who is the Lord, that I should hearken unto his voice? (Ex 5: 2). In the same terms of speech in ...


1

"Let My Nation be Warned" explains that this is why we throw in three pesukim from Michah at the end of the Haftarah. Although this is the end of the Sefer, those three pesukim were Yonah's response.


1

I would like to suggest the following approach: Your premise is that worshipping the wrong god is far worse than robbery. In this article about Noah by Rabbi Frand, he says Eliyahu felt that the generation of Achav (King Ahab) was worthless. They were idol worshippers. He saw no purpose in their existence. Yet, the Gemara says [Jerusalem Talmud ...


1

Take a step back and look at the message of the entire book. G-d tells Jonah, "go rebuke Nineveh." Jonah doesn't want to, because he's concerned with his reputation as a prophet; because how it will work out with history (Nineveh is the capital of Assyria, which will later attack Israel; and besides, it will make Israel look bad for not responding to rebuke)....


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