23

מְפַקְּחִין פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִטּל רְשׁוּת מִבֵּית דִּין. וְהַמַּקְדִּים לְהַצִּיל הַנֶּפֶשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח. [All] activities necessary to save a life should be performed on the Sabbath; there is no necessity to receive a license from the court. The more zealous one is [in this regard], the more praiseworthy. (2.16) כשעושים ...


15

I was a little boy at home when my father Yigal Calek ny"v composed Mareh Cohen - there's a very interesting 'composer's inspiration' story to go with it too... Anyway, so yes, pretty much "at the source" ;)


15

While I'm accustomed to "gut voch" or "gut (gebentched) yar," I noticed that the "מחזור המפורש" (Gefen, Jerusalem 5772 [Ashkenaz, page 999]) indicates that a regular yom tov greeting (either "gut yom tov" or "chag sameach," I guess) should be used. וז"ל: ופוקדין איש את רעהו לשלום כדרך שאומרים בכניסת יו"ט.‏ One person actually did wish me a "good yom ...


14

This is discussed in the Talmud (Shabbat 114) and the Rambam rules (Shabbat 5:21) that no Havdallah is recited after Shabbat when Yom Kippur falls on Sunday.


13

Rabbi Elyashiv ZY"A said that the wearing of Crocs on Yom Kippur is "permissible legalistically, but it is inadvisable," because they are too comfortable. (Source)


13

In addition to "good yom tov" and "good year" (or the Yiddish or Hebrew equivalents) mentioned in other answers, I've heard "a gutn kvitl" or the equivalent "piska tava", meaning "a good note", referring to the judgement sealed on Yom Kippur and delivered on Hoshana Rabbah.


12

You can listen to him discuss it here at 56:12. He says it isn't rau'i l'achilat adam (fit for human consumption) so it isn't considered eating. He quotes some opinions that it is a problem of washing the inside of the mouth on Yom Kippur, but he doesn't seem so impressed by the idea.


12

From http://www.chabadnj.org/page.asp?pageID=%7B829583A0-2C90-449A-B619-2362C8B418FF%7D The first Holy Temple was inaugurated by King Solomon on the 8th of Tishrei, and was celebrated for the next 14 days. In that year they did not fast on Yom Kippur, which fell right in middle of the festivities. The sages worried that they had erred in the matter, but ...


11

After a bit more searching, it looks like Yigal Calek of the London School of Jewish Song may be the original composer as late as 1971.


11

Rav Ovadia Yosef has a teshuva (Yabia Omer OC 7:54) on the former question (making up for a missed N'ila) dated 11 Tishrei 5748. He quotes Tosfot (Brachot 26a sv Iba'y) who gives two reasons that there is no tashlumin for a missed Musaf: because you can't say the verses related to the korbanot on the wrong day, and because Musaf was only established to take ...


11

The Mazal Sha'ah on the Rambam infers that the shi'ur l'chayyev for anointing with t'rumah oil is a k'zayis, based on R' Yehudah's opinion in the gemara (K'risus 6b) who holds that a person is liable for a k'zayis of prohibited anointing with the shemen hamishchah (Commentary to Mishneh Torah, Hil. T'rumos 10:2). (One should note that it is still Biblically ...


11

The Talmud (Yoma 73b) lists the five obligatory "afflictions" (i.e. forbidden pleasures) of Yom Kippur: Eating and drinking Bathing Anointing Wearing shoes Marital relations Maimonides, in his commentary on the Mishna, summarizes the Talmudic discussion saying: The Torah does not explicitly state the requirement to abstain from these things on the fast ...


11

The Mishna Brurah 610:16 says women customarily wear white and clean clothes. Not sure what people do today.


11

Non-Jews are certainly able to do teshuva and be forgiven, as evidenced by the story of Jonah and Ninveh (who were forgiven, despite having sinned both against man and God). The Mabit, in Beis Elohim Shaar Teshuvah chapters 13-14 writes that although non-Jews are able to do teshuva, their repentance is fundamentally different than that of Jews in several ...


10

Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (131:1) states: ואל יחשוב האדם שזוהי כפרתו ממש, אלא יחשב כי כל מה שעושין בעוף הזה, היה ראוי לבוא עליו בעונותיו. ויתאונן על חטאיו, והקדוש-ברוך-הוא ברחמיו יקבל תשובתו. A person should not think, however, that this ceremony itself actually atones for him. On the contrary, [he should look at the ceremony as symbolic in nature, ...


10

Nitei Gavriel Yom Kippur 16:9 says the Minhag is to eat round Challas dipped in honey. 16:10:15 brings in the name of the Magen Avraham 608:7 to eat fish and fowl. (some eat the Kapara chicken at this meal). In the name of Rabbi Shalom Ber of Lubavitch Zatzal, not to eat salt. Also to eat Kreplach (meat dumplings). 16:14 Not to eat things that increase ...


10

The Medrash records a machloket Tannaim about whether in the future all the moadim are batel except for Yom Kippur and Purim or all the moadim except for Purim. The Maharal writes in his hakdama to Ohr Chadash, his commentary on Megillat Esther, that on both days the Jewish people were/are opposed by a force that seeks their complete destruction - Yom Kippur ...


10

Regarding washing on Yom Kippur, the Tur (OH 613) writes: ביה"כ...ואם היו ידיו מלוכלכות בטיט וצואה מותר לרוחצן שלא אסרו אלא רחיצה של תענוג ...וכן בכל היום אחר שעשה צרכיו וקנח או הטיל מים ושפשף בידיו וכתב גאון מי שהוא איסטניס וצריך לקנח פניו במים ואין דעתו מיושבת עליו כל היום עד שיקנח יכול לקנח בי"ה וכ"כ רי"ץ גיאת אם יש ליכלוך על פניו או על גבי עיניו יכול ...


10

Yoma 88a: תני תנא קמיה דרב נחמן הרואה קרי ביוה"כ עונותיו מחולין לו ... תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל הרואה קרי ביוה"כ ידאג כל השנה כולה ואם עלתה לו שנה מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק תדע שכל העולם כולו רעב והוא שבע כי אתא רב דימי אמר מפיש חיי סגי ומסגי:‏ A beraita was taught before R. Nachman: One who has an emission on Yom Kippur, his sins ...


10

The fixed calendar already prevents Yom Kippur from falling on a Friday or Sunday, to avoid two consecutive days where all melachot are forbidden. (See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 428:1 with e.g. Magen Avraham, Biur HaGra, Biur Halachah.) If we were to also prevent Yom Kippur from falling on Shabbat, that would lead to a situation where the new moon of ...


10

In Guide for the Perplexed 3:46 Rambam writes: The goat [of the Day of Atonement] that was sent [into the wilderness] (Lev. xvi. 20, seq.) served as an atonement for all serious transgressions more than any other sin-offering of the congregation. As it thus seemed to carry off all sins, it was not accepted as an ordinary sacrifice to be slaughtered, burnt, ...


9

The source for Birnbaum's account is Shibbolei Haleket, citing a Geonic teshuvah (and quoted from there in Otzar Hageonim to Megillah 23b). The king is named there as יוזגרד - i.e., Yezdegerd (II) of Persia (ruled 438-457), although there's no mention of spies being there for part of davening and then leaving - on the contrary, the Gaon writes that the ...


9

Based on the ArtScroll Machzor's introduction to Kol Nidrei: When Rabbah bar bar Chanah arrived at the site of Har Sinai, he heard a Divine voice proclaim: "Woe is me that I have sworn! But now that I have sworn, who will annul my oath?" (Bava Basra 74a) The Rashbam comments that HaShem looks for grounds to annul his oath not to end the exile (ibid.). The ...


9

This custom is mentioned in the Shulchan Aruch (OC 610:1). It is supposed to serve as a reminder to avoid marital relations on Yom Kippur. It is common to allow at least some light into the bedroom: see "The Laws of Lighting Candles for Yom Kippur" by R' Yosef Zimbal.


9

Nitey Gavriel (Yom Kippur Perek 20 Sif 19) writes that many have the custom not to whip on Erev Yom Kippur. He cites as a source Kaf HaChaim (O.C. 607:40) who claims that Erev Yom Kippur is considered a Yom Tov and we do not give lashes on Yom Tov. The Nitey Gavriel notes that this is the prevelant custom in Zitshov, Tshernobil, Gur and Amshinov.


9

Actually there is a debate in Orach Chayim 622:1 between the Sefardi and the Ashkenazi practice (as pointed out by DoubleAA in comment): למנחה אומר אשרי ובא לציון ואין אומרים ואני תפלתי אפילו אם חל להיות בשבת:‏ הגה: ואין אנו נוהגין לומר אשרי ובא לציון קודם מנחה רק קודם נעילה וכן כתבו קצת רבוותא (מרדכי והגהות מיימוני סוף ספר אהבה וסוף הלכות יום ...


8

This piece from Derekh Eretz Rabbaiti is one of my favorites: There is no reason to treat people unkindly but we don't have to open ourselves up to being hurt. For people who repeatedly cause us pain or transgress against us, I try to remind myself of this. Suspect them, protect yourself, but never embarrass, humiliate, or refuse to show respect to them. The ...


8

The question of Kiddush on Yom Kippur is discussed first in the Gemara Eiruvin The Shibolei Haleket (312) writes that because one does not normally eat on Yom Kippur, the Sages never required mention of the holiday in kiddush or even bentching. In fact, making Kiddush would be improper because one might see kiddush being made and think that it should be ...


8

One explanation I heard was that Kol Nidre took on additional layers of emotional meaning for European Jews because of the forced conversion of Jews to Christianity during the Middle Ages.


8

Based on Shulchan Aruch Harav, Section 624:4 - 624:5. Just like on Shabbos, after Yom Kippur we make a Bracha on fire since we were not permitted to use fire before, and it is like a new entity to us. After Shabbos we may use new fire because this is how fire was initially brought into the world after Shabbos Adam took two stones and made fire and made the ...


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