24

מְפַקְּחִין פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִטּל רְשׁוּת מִבֵּית דִּין. וְהַמַּקְדִּים לְהַצִּיל הַנֶּפֶשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח. [All] activities necessary to save a life should be performed on the Sabbath; there is no necessity to receive a license from the court. The more zealous one is [in this regard], the more praiseworthy. (2.16) כשעושים ...


15

While I'm accustomed to "gut voch" or "gut (gebentched) yar," I noticed that the "מחזור המפורש" (Gefen, Jerusalem 5772 [Ashkenaz, page 999]) indicates that a regular yom tov greeting (either "gut yom tov" or "chag sameach," I guess) should be used. וז"ל: ופוקדין איש את רעהו לשלום כדרך שאומרים בכניסת יו"ט.‏ One person actually did wish me a "good yom ...


14

This is discussed in the Talmud (Shabbat 114) and the Rambam rules (Shabbat 5:21) that no Havdallah is recited after Shabbat when Yom Kippur falls on Sunday.


13

In addition to "good yom tov" and "good year" (or the Yiddish or Hebrew equivalents) mentioned in other answers, I've heard "a gutn kvitl" or the equivalent "piska tava", meaning "a good note", referring to the judgement sealed on Yom Kippur and delivered on Hoshana Rabbah.


12

You can listen to him discuss it here at 56:12. He says it isn't rau'i l'achilat adam (fit for human consumption) so it isn't considered eating. He quotes some opinions that it is a problem of washing the inside of the mouth on Yom Kippur, but he doesn't seem so impressed by the idea.


12

From http://www.chabadnj.org/page.asp?pageID=%7B829583A0-2C90-449A-B619-2362C8B418FF%7D The first Holy Temple was inaugurated by King Solomon on the 8th of Tishrei, and was celebrated for the next 14 days. In that year they did not fast on Yom Kippur, which fell right in middle of the festivities. The sages worried that they had erred in the matter, but ...


11

The Talmud (Yoma 73b) lists the five obligatory "afflictions" (i.e. forbidden pleasures) of Yom Kippur: Eating and drinking Bathing Anointing Wearing shoes Marital relations Maimonides, in his commentary on the Mishna, summarizes the Talmudic discussion saying: The Torah does not explicitly state the requirement to abstain from these things on the fast ...


11

The Mishna Brurah 610:16 says women customarily wear white and clean clothes. Not sure what people do today.


11

Non-Jews are certainly able to do teshuva and be forgiven, as evidenced by the story of Jonah and Ninveh (who were forgiven, despite having sinned both against man and God). The Mabit, in Beis Elohim Shaar Teshuvah chapters 13-14 writes that although non-Jews are able to do teshuva, their repentance is fundamentally different than that of Jews in several ...


11

Regarding washing on Yom Kippur, the Tur (OH 613) writes: ביה"כ...ואם היו ידיו מלוכלכות בטיט וצואה מותר לרוחצן שלא אסרו אלא רחיצה של תענוג ...וכן בכל היום אחר שעשה צרכיו וקנח או הטיל מים ושפשף בידיו וכתב גאון מי שהוא איסטניס וצריך לקנח פניו במים ואין דעתו מיושבת עליו כל היום עד שיקנח יכול לקנח בי"ה וכ"כ רי"ץ גיאת אם יש ליכלוך על פניו או על גבי עיניו יכול ...


10

Nitei Gavriel Yom Kippur 16:9 says the Minhag is to eat round Challas dipped in honey. 16:10:15 brings in the name of the Magen Avraham 608:7 to eat fish and fowl. (some eat the Kapara chicken at this meal). In the name of Rabbi Shalom Ber of Lubavitch Zatzal, not to eat salt. Also to eat Kreplach (meat dumplings). 16:14 Not to eat things that increase ...


10

The Medrash records a machloket Tannaim about whether in the future all the moadim are batel except for Yom Kippur and Purim or all the moadim except for Purim. The Maharal writes in his hakdama to Ohr Chadash, his commentary on Megillat Esther, that on both days the Jewish people were/are opposed by a force that seeks their complete destruction - Yom Kippur ...


10

Yoma 88a: תני תנא קמיה דרב נחמן הרואה קרי ביוה"כ עונותיו מחולין לו ... תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל הרואה קרי ביוה"כ ידאג כל השנה כולה ואם עלתה לו שנה מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק תדע שכל העולם כולו רעב והוא שבע כי אתא רב דימי אמר מפיש חיי סגי ומסגי:‏ A beraita was taught before R. Nachman: One who has an emission on Yom Kippur, his sins ...


10

The fixed calendar already prevents Yom Kippur from falling on a Friday or Sunday, to avoid two consecutive days where all melachot are forbidden. (See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 428:1 with e.g. Magen Avraham, Biur HaGra, Biur Halachah.) If we were to also prevent Yom Kippur from falling on Shabbat, that would lead to a situation where the new moon of ...


10

In Guide for the Perplexed 3:46 Rambam writes: The goat [of the Day of Atonement] that was sent [into the wilderness] (Lev. xvi. 20, seq.) served as an atonement for all serious transgressions more than any other sin-offering of the congregation. As it thus seemed to carry off all sins, it was not accepted as an ordinary sacrifice to be slaughtered, burnt, ...


9

The question of Kiddush on Yom Kippur is discussed first in the Gemara Eiruvin The Shibolei Haleket (312) writes that because one does not normally eat on Yom Kippur, the Sages never required mention of the holiday in kiddush or even bentching. In fact, making Kiddush would be improper because one might see kiddush being made and think that it should be ...


9

Actually there is a debate in Orach Chayim 622:1 between the Sefardi and the Ashkenazi practice (as pointed out by DoubleAA in comment): למנחה אומר אשרי ובא לציון ואין אומרים ואני תפלתי אפילו אם חל להיות בשבת:‏ הגה: ואין אנו נוהגין לומר אשרי ובא לציון קודם מנחה רק קודם נעילה וכן כתבו קצת רבוותא (מרדכי והגהות מיימוני סוף ספר אהבה וסוף הלכות יום ...


8

Rambam, Hil. Avodas Yom Hakippurim 1:3 (from Yoma 12a-b): זה שנכנס תחתיו אינו צריך חינוך אלא עבודתו מחנכתו "The one who replaces him doesn't need any inauguration; his performing the avodah [of Yom Kippur, which is reserved for the kohen gadol] inaugurates him." So he doesn't need anointing at that time (and not after Yom Kippur either, because ...


8

This piece from Derekh Eretz Rabbaiti is one of my favorites: There is no reason to treat people unkindly but we don't have to open ourselves up to being hurt. For people who repeatedly cause us pain or transgress against us, I try to remind myself of this. Suspect them, protect yourself, but never embarrass, humiliate, or refuse to show respect to them. The ...


8

Chovos Halevavos - #7 - Shaar Teshuva ch.10 ch.9 But for the sins towards G-d and man, it will be difficult to repent for several reasons: He may not be able to find the person he oppressed, or the person died or moved far away... Perhaps the oppressed will not forgive him for what he oppressed him or hurt him physically, or spoke badly of ...


8

Try Mishnayos Yoma. These mishnayos discuss the Temple Service for the day of Yom Kippur, and are traditionally printed in Yom Kippur machzorim (prayer books) after Maariv prayers of the night of Yom Kippur. I would also recommend spending some time looking at the prayers for the next day -- they are long and unfamiliar, and reading them with an English ...


8

In addition to "gut yor", I believe I've heard "gmar tov" till Hoshana Rabba.


8

The Arukh haShulchan (OC 620:1) writes: ומה שתמיהני: דהנה הרא"ש שלהי יומא, והטור בסימן זה הביאו בשם הגאונים לומר בשחרית חמש פעמים "ויעבור". ויש אומרים שלוש עשרה פעמים כנגד שלוש עשרה מדות. ויש אומרים שבע פעמים, ובמוסף שבע פעמים, וכן במנחה, עיין שם. ואנחנו אין מזכירין אפילו פעם אחת. ויש מנהגים שאין להם עיקר — ונזהרים בהם, וזה שהוא מהגאונים ...


8

No, not according to the answer on this site: Although it is preferable to join a minyan where this is possible, both Kol Nidrei and Yizkor can be recited in private. The reason for this is that neither are considered a “davar shebikdusha” that requires a minyan.


7

Mishna Berura 135:34 says that on a fast day a Kohain or Levi should not get the Aliyah of Maftir. I do not see any reason why Yom Kippur should be different than other fast days.


7

Rosh Hashanah 16a: Rav Yosef said: Like whom do we hold that we pray nowadays for the sick and ailing? Like whom? Like Rabbi Yosi! [who says that "a person is judged every day"] And if you'd rather, I'll answer per Rabbi Yitzchak, who said that "crying out is good for a person, whether before or after the verdict." Trans. mine, except ...


7

Nitei Gavriel Hilchos Yom Hakipurim page 181 note 24 in the name of Siach Yitzchak that we wear a Talis at Kol Nidrei based on the Yerushalmi Chagiga 1:5 that says that one needs to wear a Talis at the time of Hataras Nedarim. He goes on to say that one should only make a Bracha on the Talis up to the time he would normally Daven Mincha.


7

Shaalos Uteshuvos Radbaz 3:444 says that perhaps the Riva felt that his time was up and knew that he would die either way and therefore did not eat. "אפשר דריב"א ז"ל הרגיש בעצמו דאפילו שיאכל ימות ד'לב יודע מרת נפשו', והיינו דקאמר: ברי ושמא ברי עדיף. כלומר: הברי שלי [שאמות] עדיף משמא שלכם [שאולי תצילו אותי], ולפיכך לא רצה לאכול".‏ The "ברי" was ...


7

The Sefer HaChinuch explains (§95) that the two goats of Yom Kippur are symbolic for the choice presented to a sinner – the goat for Hashem representing one who repents, and the goat for Azazel representing one who doesn’t. ובקרבן עזאזל שנשלח חי אל מקום החרבן והכליון נאמר בפשט הענין לבל ידמה החוטא הגמור שאחר שתקבל נפשו ענש על חטאים, התשוב לעמוד במקום ...


7

This custom is noted in Matteh Ephraim 624:14.


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