Most if not all of the translations below include detailed notes that cite many other Rabbinical works.
(It must be noted that the purposes of the translations and commentaries listed below varied widely. Some of the authors were humanists interested in classicism, comparative religion and jurisprudence, and the like; others, some of who were apostates, had ...
It's from Rashi, Shemos 20:3:
אלהים אחרים. שֶׁאֵינָן אֱלוֹהוּת אֶלָּא אֲחֵרִים עֲשָׂאוּם אֱלֹהִים עֲלֵיהֶם, וְלֹא יִתָּכֵן לְפָרֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים זוּלָתִי, שֶׁגְּנַאי כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה לִקְרֹאותָם אֱלוֹהוּת אֶצְלוֹ...
OTHER GODS — which are not gods, but others have made them gods over themselves. It would not be correct to explain this to mean “gods ...
This translation is probably (ultimately) based on an opinion brought in Mekhilta 20:3:
וכי אלוהות הן? ... אלא שאחרים קוראין אותם אלוהות
Are they in fact gods? ... Rather, that others call them gods.
and popularized by Rashi to Shemot 20:3:
אלהים אחרים. שֶׁאֵינָן אֱלוֹהוּת אֶלָּא אֲחֵרִים עֲשָׂאוּם אֱלֹהִים עֲלֵיהֶם, וְלֹא יִתָּכֵן לְפָרֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים ...
According to the book Biblical interpretation in Judaism and Christianity seen here, quoting Harkavy's own prefatory note to his translation, Harkavy simply copied the common King James bible, as was common to do, while removing Christology from the translation.
Apparently he didn't do such a good job.
Aside from the Talmud, the story of the Septuagint is mentioned in the minor tractate Soferim (1:7-8):
מעשה בה׳ זקנים שכתבו לתלמי המלך את התורה יונית והיה היום קשה לישראל כיום שנעשה העגל שלא היתה התורה יכולה להתרגם כל צרכה:
It once happened that five elders wrote the Torah for King Ptolemy in
Greek, and that day was as ominous for Israel as the day on which ...
The Hebrew Wiktionary has confirmed my suspicion, the word פְּלַסְתֵּר is of Greek origin, and it comes from πλαστός, meaning
false, spurious, fictitious, counterfeit
This is also, how Rashi translates it. The Greek word is derived from πλάσσω, meaning to form or mould, and in a figurative sense to fabricate or forge.
see the Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:9-10:
ט השלג והברד אין מרסקין אותם דהיינו לשברם לחתיכות דקות כדי שיזובו
מימיו אבל נותן הוא לתוך כוס של יין או מים והוא נימח מאיליו ואינו חושש
וכן אם הניחם בחמה או כנגד המדורה ונפשרו מותרים: י מותר לשבר הקרח
כדי ליטול מים מתחתיו:
There are three words being used in these two halachos: שלג, ברד and קרח.
שלג and ברד ...
An English summary of the book is given in Meyer Waxman's History of Jewish Literature, vol. 2 starting from p. 590.
The Hebrew version can be found here and the German translation here.
There's also a Catalan translation of the story, El príncep i el monjo with introduction and study by Tessa Calders i Artís (1987).
Translation is as follows:
במחשכים הושיבני - שאין נוחין זה עם זה ותלמודם ספק בידם
He has made me dwell in the dark places - i.e. they are not agreeable,1 this one with that one, and their learning is doubtful in their hands.
So he is saying that the learning in Bavel (Babylonia) is not as clear as that of those in Israel as they are always in a state of ...
A few lines of the text are left out in the middle until the last few words. A correction of what was already translated together with the rest (my own changes and additions italicized):
I did not find this explained, and this verse is not a necessary proof, because there (Numbers 31:16-17), even if she had no sexual intercourse, nevertheless, because they ...
Jeremiah 17:8 has two versions of the word ירא~יִרְאֶה in kere and ketiv, implying two readings, one as "see" and one as "fear."
On Zephaniah 3:15 there are two versions of the word ת(י)ראי circulating in the manuscripts (see Minchat Shai).
Onkelos has a habit of translating מֹרָא גָּדֹל as if it meant "sight" despite being ...
Your second option is correct. Rambam is comparing the non-Jewish woman to an object of bestiality.
His language is taken from Mishnah Sanhedrin 7:4:
A man who engages in intercourse with a male or with an animal, and a woman who engages in intercourse with an animal. If the person sinned, how did the animal sin? Rather, because a calamity was caused to a ...
It's a question of arithmetic.
Ramban assumes that David was born approximately 370 years after Bnei Yisrael entered the Land. But only four generations spanned that time: Salmon (who was the son of Nachshon ben Aminadav and was one of those who entered the land), Boaz, Oved and Yishai. (See Rut 4:18-22.)
This means that each generation spanned an average ...
In Shmuel 1 17:4 it writes:
וַיֵּצֵ֤א אִֽישׁ־הַבֵּנַ֙יִם֙ מִמַּחֲנ֣וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים גָּלְיָ֥ת שְׁמ֖וֹ מִגַּ֑ת גָּבְה֕וֹ שֵׁ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת וָזָֽרֶת׃
A champion of the Philistine forces stepped forward; his name was Goliath of Gath, and he was six cubits and a span tall. (sefaria translation)
The Midrash Aggadah Devarim 3:11 qualifies אִֽישׁ־הַבֵּנַ֙יִם֙ in ...
The version in the printed text of the Gemara (Chagiga 16a) has יוסף. The default translation of the mishna on Sefaria is apparently copied from the Koren (William Davidson) translation of the Gemara. (The Mesorat Hashas actually changes both of them to יוסף, but the text on Sefaria follows the printed version with one יוסף and one יוסי.)
Interestingly, the Steinsaltz Gemara on this segment comments
The seventy-two Elders, in their translation of the word hare in the
list of non-kosher animals, used the word δασύπους, dasupous, which
literally means hairy-legged or roughfooted, instead of the standard
term for hare, λαγός, lagos. They did so because the nickname of the
founder of the ...
Midrash Tehillim 18:32 (cited in Rashi, I Shmuel 17:49) says that Goliath fell forward after David struck him with a stone (rather than, as might have been expected, backwards)
כדי שלא יצטער דוד וילך ויחתוך את ראשו. נשתכר י"ב אמה וזרתיים
so that David wouldn't have to go to so much trouble to cut off his head. He gained twelve cubits and two spans
Rav Saadiah Gaon's Tafsir (Arabic translation) on the Pentateuch is available on Sefaria, here and a manuscript of his Tafsir on Isaiah can be found in the National Library of France, here. Other Tafsirs on the Pentateuch, Lamentations, Esther, Job, Isaiah, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Ruth, Song of Songs and Psalms can be found in the Judeo-Arabic section of the ...
Both textual traditions (along with the Samaritan Pentateuch, which has similarities with each) predate Christianity by centuries. Basically, texts, whether religious, or otherwise, present a rainbow-like distribution in terms of variation.
To illustrate this by way of a basic example, for the purpose of clarification:
The difference in genealogies:
The Mishnah in Sanhedrin (54a in the Babylonian Talmud) states:
הבא על הזכור ועל הבהמה והאשה המביאה את הבהמה בסקילה אם אדם חטא בהמה מה חטאה אלא לפי שבאה לאדם תקלה על ידה לפיכך אמר הכתוב תסקל ד"א שלא תהא בהמה עוברת בשוק ויאמרו זו היא שנסקל פלוני על ידה
HE WHO COMMITS SODOMY WITH A MALE OR A BEAST, AND A WOMAN THAT COMMITS BESTIALITY ARE STONED. IF THE ...
The word זדון refers to the Jew in this statement. Grammatically, בזדון is an adverb modifying בא, and the actor of בא is the ישראל. The commentators who address this understand it this way as well.
Additionally, the statement compares intercourse with the Cuthi woman to intercourse with an animal: just as we don't speak about the willfulness of the animal, ...
Rav Daniel Glatstein quotes the Ben L'Ashri who explains since Mikeitz normally falls out during or shortly after Chanukah, and the Yom Tov has the ability to infuse the most seemingly mundane areas of life with holiness, Rashi wanted to hint to this profound power of Chanukah through quoting so many translations of the Torah in a foreign language.
Translation reads as follows:
בשעה שבא נחש על חוה. פשט המאמר הוא כמו שאמרו המפרשים ז"ל, דלא בא עליה ח"ו ביאה ממשית גופא בגופא, אלא ביאה מחשבית והטיל בה זוהמא בראיה, ואותה הזוהמא היתה הזרעה שלו, וכאשר נמצא כך במין העוף שמזדווג ומוליד בראיה בלבד, שהזכר רואה ומסתכל בנקבה.
At the time that the snake was intimate with Chavah - The simple explanation (p'...
Edit: I've now noticed that the Letter of Aristeas, which records the story of the creation of the Septuagint, records the names of all of the sages involved:
"The following are the names of the elders: Of the first tribe, Joseph, Ezekiah, Zachariah, John, Ezekiah, Elisha. Of the second tribe, Judas, Simon, Samuel, Adaeus, Mattathias, Eschlemias. Of ...
According to Rb Avraham Gurwicz (Gateshead) - harkavah mishchis is a mixture and harkavah mizgis is a compound.
So for example, if you have a chatzi eved chatzi ben chorin, you can have a chakirah if this is a harkavah mishchis, and there just happen to be elements of ben chorin and eved in the same person, or if this is a harkavah mizgis so that these ...
It's derived from Exodus 22:1:
If the thief is seized while tunneling, and he is beaten to death, there is no bloodguilt in his case.
Rashi comments on this verse:
אין לו דמים THERE SHALL NO GUILT OF BLOOD BE INCURRED FOR HIM — This is not regarded as a murder; it is as though he (the thief) has been dead from the beginning of his criminal act (אין לו ...