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24

This is a valid way of inserting missing words, as the Shulchan Aruch in Yoreh De'ah in סימן רעו - דין תלית הדלוג Paskens: א: טָעָה וְדִלֵּג תֵּבָה אוֹ יוֹתֵר, יָכוֹל לִתְלוֹתָהּ בֵּין הַשִּׁיטִין אֲבָל לֹא בָּרֶוַח שֶׁבֵּין דַּף לְדַף.‏ If he erred and missed a word or more, he can hang it between the lines, but he may not put it in the space ...


21

As you yourself say, the Muslim claims have never been backed up with proof. If there would be proof, why would they not inform us? That seems ample proof that it's a baseless claim. There are various proofs that the Torah we have is essentially identical to the original (with some minor spelling variants). One is the fact that all Jews have the same ...


15

The Mahara"l of Prauge, in his commentary to Megilas Esther called Ohr Chadash, (after offering the more basic suggestion that this denotes something Mordechai would do on a constant basis), explains that even when Mordechai had an option to use an alternate route, he would make a point of going in front of Haman and not bowing down. The Ohr Hachayim ...


12

The oldest actual manuscript fragment appears to be the Cairo Genizah scroll fragment in the Cambridge University Library Genizah collection (which can be searched for ALL its wonderful things here-try "Talmud" or "ketubah" or "Rashi" for starters) studied by Professor Shamma Friedman, containing the Bavli's Chullin 101a - 105a. Opinions to the exact date ...


11

Ohr Chadash - Maharal M'Prag asks this question and answers that Mordechai intentionally made sure to be in the areas where Haman was going to show he was not going to bow down. לא יכרע, זהו אף שהיה יכול מרדכי ללכת בדרך אחרת שלא יהיה פוגע בו ולא יכעס המן


11

During the Second Temple Period, there were different sects with different interpretations of Judaism. The descendants of the Pharisees wrote the Talmud, which defined Orthodox Judaism as we know today. (What follows is from Rabbi Shneur Leiman's lecture on yutorah.org) The Dead Sea Scrolls belonged to a sect that was clearly not the Pharisees; it includes ...


9

The perspective of Orthodox Jews vis-a-vis the Dead sea scrolls varies from non recognition, ambivalence, to outright excitement. For those who do not view it as a life altering find see them as 1. Either a validation of what was already known to them ie. Small variance in textual differences due to a very solid mesorah. 2. the other non canonical scrolls ...


9

I hadn't answered this question because I assumed that since there were so many answers already provided, that there must have been at least one answer that really satisified the question, in a truthful manner, but that is not the case. The truth is that every bit of evidence we have says that the Torah underwent changes. But most of these changes were not ...


9

It's a Yiddish abbreviation for Kein Ayin Hora - or in Hebrew Bli Ayin Hara. Simply stated without the evil eye; we're not discussing [something] in order to get [it] punished due to our jealousy.


8

There are differences between texts of Tanach now and in the past. In fact, there are several different so-called "textual witnesses" of Tanach that exist, each of which has their own strengths and weaknesses. The textus receptus — received text of the Jews is the Masoretic text, whose ancestors are present in some form in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls and ...


8

You can find it on HebrewBooks. (Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 4) The work is known as Chiddushei Agados Maharal MiPrague.


7

Depending on which tractate you're looking for, you could try Tuvia's who also makes his texts available online for free at e-daf.com. (It's one of the "size" options in the dropdown. Note: they don't have all tractates.) Greenfield Judaica also has the Oz V'Hadar Menukad. For other online versions (which also don't appear to be complete as of this posting)...


7

The men of the great assembly According to Berachot 33a, the Men of the Great Assembly (אנשי כנסת הגדולה) instituted blessings, prayers, kiddush, and havdala. (These translations are copied from the linked page at sefaria.org.) אנשי כנסת הגדולה תקנו להם לישראל ברכות ותפלות קדושות והבדלות The members of the Great Assembly established for Israel blessings and ...


7

I don't believe there is a single set one, but a few with minor variations. Some of the classic Tenaim texts were collected in Sefer Nachalas Shiv'a, and another version was drafted by Rav Moshe Feinstein more recently. To the best of my knowledge, Rav Moshe's is the most commonly used in non-Hassidic Ashkenazi communities. (There are of course earlier ...


6

Following @Yahu's suggestion, I'll summarize Urbach's analysis of the editors of the tosfot of the different masechtot: Brachot - An unknown Ashkenazi (Germanic) scholar who personally knew Rabbi Moshe of Evreux, but was probably not his student. The tosfot are mostly based on the writings of Rabbi Yehudah Messer Leon. Shabbat - Rabbi Eliezer of Touques, ...


6

To expand on Danny's answer. As per Danny, it's clear that Jews everywhere have had essentially identical texts for thousands of years. If you want to look back before that, I recommend David Weiss Halivni's books, particularly "Peshat & Derash". He defends the thesis that the texts did suffer some issues in the era of the Judges, and that Jewish ...


6

Hebrewbooks.org has a lot of seforim, though mostly in PDF format. (You can get their Shas and Rambam as text files.) Torat Emet Sefaria has a lot of text sefarim, coupled with crowdsourced English translations. Wikitext (idea taken from here, h/t YEZ) Mechon Mamre, Hebrew and English Tanach, as well as many, many other sefarim. (idea taken from here, h/t ...


6

The two main texts you probably want to see, in terms of the Masoretic texts, are the Leningrad and Aleppo Codices, available online here and here respectively. See here for many more old scanned manuscripts.


6

Great question! It's not just the "from yesterday"; it's the conjugation on the word "goring", looking very, very carefully at the vowels: נַגָּח That's a patach (straight line) under the first letter, and a kamatz (little "T") under the second, with the second letter getting an internal dot. Let's call it na-GUHCH. The much ...


5

Kulanu, as the others have said, means that everyone leans. How to square that with the fact that not everyone is required (or even allowed in some cases) to lean is asked by the Natai Gavriel. In a nutshell, his answer is leaning is about showing the autonomy and freedom of liberation, and that we all participate in the action of showing the liberation of ...


5

Sefaria is a great resource for this sort of thing. See their developer documentation, and terms of use for more information. They return results in JSON or JSONP. Each translation has its own copyright issues which you'll have to deal with distinctly. However, "codex" might be too strict of a term when talking about translations.


5

I think there are 304805 letters in a Sefer Torah but 304850 or 304848 letters in the text as found in a famous manuscript, the 'Leningrad codex', which many academics use. Sefaria is based on the Leningrad codex from tanach.us. I haven't seen a list of the differences, but an example is האלילם/האלילים in Leviticus 19:4.


5

Aleppo Codex: Archive.org pdf, flash version arranged by book Berlin Codex (Babylonian niqqud): Seforim Online pdf British Museum Or. 4445 (B): British Museum Cairo Codex: Wikipedia pdf, Seforim Online pdf (skewed images, includes intro) Cairo Genizah: Cambridge, Friedberg Project (partially transcribed) Damascus Codex: World Digital Library, National ...


5

Included were Rabbis Yaakov Emden and Moshe Chagiz according to Graetz here and R. Yitzchak Pacifici (פאציפיקו) (the chief rabbi of Venice) as Graetz notes here. This page lists generally the Ashkenazi and Spanish rabbis of Germany, Venice, Poland, Holland, and Denmark as pronouncing the ban. It should be noted that the ban was actually promulgated; not ...


5

This text can be viewed here, in Sefer Shem HaGadolim, in a footnote about the second Raavid. It in turn is quoting from Sefer HaEmunot.


5

Your card with the footnoted source from Shem HaGadolim is to provide a source for the statement in chapter 81 on page 49 of Sefer HaDat v'HaChinuch cited and linked in your question. It is discussing an educator of Jews who has the negative intention of nullifying and disqualifying the Jewish faith of those he is teaching. It states there: The teacher ...


5

Rav Dovid Tzvi Hoffman on this Passuk suggests that the word כסיה would mean forever/ongoing: ואולי הפירוש של ״כסיה״ – לדעתם של אלה הסוברים כי תיבה אחת יש כאן – הוא: המכוסה, העטוף, כלומר הנצח, כמו ״עולם״ מלשון עלם, להסתיר, ופירושו של הכתוב הוא אפוא: יהא זאת מצבת נצח Rabbi Chaim Heller (footnote 11 here) suggests that it would mean "throne", just as כסא ...


4

There is no "book" of the rulings of Rabbeinu Gershom. Many items are referenced by later Rishonim in Ashkenaz as takkanot (rulings) of Rabbeinu Gershom, but there is no authoritative list in any one place. There is also no English translation for most of the following, which may be why no one has quoted them: The earliest attributions to Rabbeinu Gershom ...


4

I believe it is paraphrased from the Gemara (Gittin 59b) The Gemara is discussing the honour accorded to a Kohen, saying that he is accorded ראשון for לכל דבר שבקדושה. וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון


4

I don't think there is any single "most common way", as i've personally seen several. Some chumashim will print the ktiv without vowels, and the kri next to it. Others will do the same, but in small print, write קרי and כתיב. Still others will only include the ktiv (without vowels) in the text, and have a note in the margin with the kri. Others use the ...


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