This is a valid way of inserting missing words, as the Shulchan Aruch in Yoreh De'ah in סימן רעו - דין תלית הדלוג Paskens:
א: טָעָה וְדִלֵּג תֵּבָה אוֹ יוֹתֵר, יָכוֹל לִתְלוֹתָהּ בֵּין הַשִּׁיטִין אֲבָל לֹא בָּרֶוַח שֶׁבֵּין דַּף לְדַף.
If he erred and missed a word or more, he can hang it between the lines, but he may not put it in the space ...
As you yourself say, the Muslim claims have never been backed up with proof.
If there would be proof, why would they not inform us?
That seems ample proof that it's a baseless claim.
There are various proofs that the Torah we have is essentially identical to the original (with some minor spelling variants).
One is the fact that all Jews have the same ...
The Mahara"l of Prauge, in his commentary to Megilas Esther called Ohr Chadash, (after offering the more basic suggestion that this denotes something Mordechai would do on a constant basis), explains that even when Mordechai had an option to use an alternate route, he would make a point of going in front of Haman and not bowing down.
The Ohr Hachayim ...
The earliest printed sources that mention the bans of Rabbeinu Gershom ben Yehuda, one of which is the ban on polygamy, appear to be the Machzor Vitry (§575) and two teshuvot of the Maharam of Rotenberg (§153 and §1022). A much easier source to find (and read) is the anonymously-authored Sefer Kol Bo, which was probably composed in the 14th century. There ...
Ohr Chadash - Maharal M'Prag asks this question and answers that Mordechai intentionally made sure to be in the areas where Haman was going to show he was not going to bow down.
לא יכרע, זהו אף שהיה יכול מרדכי ללכת בדרך אחרת שלא יהיה פוגע בו ולא
During the Second Temple Period, there were different sects with different interpretations of Judaism. The descendants of the Pharisees wrote the Talmud, which defined Orthodox Judaism as we know today.
(What follows is from Rabbi Shneur Leiman's lecture on yutorah.org)
The Dead Sea Scrolls belonged to a sect that was clearly not the Pharisees; it includes ...
The oldest actual manuscript fragment appears to be the Cairo Genizah scroll fragment in the Cambridge University Library Genizah collection (which can be searched for ALL its wonderful things here-try "Talmud" or "ketubah" or "Rashi" for starters) studied by Professor Shamma Friedman, containing the Bavli's Chullin 101a - 105a. Opinions to the exact date ...
I hadn't answered this question because I assumed that since there were so many answers already provided, that there must have been at least one answer that really satisified the question, in a truthful manner, but that is not the case.
The truth is that every bit of evidence we have says that the Torah underwent changes. But most of these changes were not ...
The perspective of Orthodox Jews vis-a-vis the Dead sea scrolls varies from non recognition, ambivalence, to outright excitement.
For those who do not view it as a life altering find see them as 1. Either a validation of what was already known to them ie. Small variance in textual differences due to a very solid mesorah. 2. the other non canonical scrolls ...
There are differences between texts of Tanach now and in the past. In fact, there are several different so-called "textual witnesses" of Tanach that exist, each of which has their own strengths and weaknesses.
The textus receptus — received text of the Jews is the Masoretic text, whose ancestors are present in some form in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls and ...
For starters: in Ashkenazic custom (which I think the questioner was assuming), the kesubah has already been signed (i.e. executed) before the chupah, so the reading is nothing more than a pause between parts of the ceremony. It's accomplishing nothing of a halachic nature any more than reading the latest stock numbers would be, hence many rabbis have been ...
To expand on Danny's answer.
As per Danny, it's clear that Jews everywhere have had essentially identical texts for thousands of years. If you want to look back before that, I recommend David Weiss Halivni's books, particularly "Peshat & Derash". He defends the thesis that the texts did suffer some issues in the era of the Judges, and that Jewish ...
The men of the great assembly
According to Berachot 33a, the Men of the Great Assembly (אנשי כנסת הגדולה) instituted blessings, prayers, kiddush, and havdala. (These translations are copied from the linked page at sefaria.org.)
אנשי כנסת הגדולה תקנו להם לישראל ברכות ותפלות קדושות והבדלות
The members of the Great Assembly established for Israel blessings and ...
I don't believe there is a single set one, but a few with minor variations.
Some of the classic Tenaim texts were collected in Sefer Nachalas Shiv'a, and another version was drafted by Rav Moshe Feinstein more recently. To the best of my knowledge, Rav Moshe's is the most commonly used in non-Hassidic Ashkenazi communities. (There are of course earlier ...
Wikipedia's article "Tosafot", quoting the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia's:
The edited tosafot owe their existence particularly to Samson of Sens
and to the following French tosafists of the thirteenth century: (1)
Moses of Évreux, (2) Eliezer of Touques, and (3) Perez ben Elijah of
Hebrewbooks.org has a lot of seforim, though mostly in PDF
format. (You can get their Shas and Rambam as text files.)
Sefaria has a lot of text sefarim, coupled with crowdsourced English
Wikitext (idea taken from here, h/t YEZ)
Mechon Mamre, Hebrew and English Tanach, as well as many, many other sefarim. (idea taken from here, h/t ...
The two main texts you probably want to see, in terms of the Masoretic texts, are the Leningrad and Aleppo Codices, available online here and here respectively.
See here for many more old scanned manuscripts.
Depending on which tractate you're looking for, you could try Tuvia's who also makes his texts available online for free at e-daf.com. (It's one of the "size" options in the dropdown. Note: they don't have all tractates.) Greenfield Judaica also has the Oz V'Hadar Menukad.
For other online versions (which also don't appear to be complete as of this posting)...
This is an excellent question that is best asked to your local Orthodox rabbi.
One important aspect of the question, which should not be minimized, is the public humiliation to the bride, who will be mortified that her lack of virginity will be revealed to her friends and family. Chazal say (Berachot 43b) about embarrassing someone in public that it better ...
I think you are referring to the (re)discovery of the Torah scroll by Chilkiyahu the High Priest in the time of Yoshiyahu (Josiah?) (mentioned in Kings II chap. 22, and Chronicles II chap. 34), in the course of renovations to the Temple. (If I'm mistaken, please cite a source).
You are quite correct that there were many copies of the Torah. This particular ...
Kulanu, as the others have said, means that everyone leans. How to square that with the fact that not everyone is required (or even allowed in some cases) to lean is asked by the Natai Gavriel. In a nutshell, his answer is leaning is about showing the autonomy and freedom of liberation, and that we all participate in the action of showing the liberation of ...
Sefaria is a great resource for this sort of thing.
They return results in JSON or JSONP. Each translation has its own copyright issues which you'll have to deal with distinctly.
However, "codex" might be too strict of a term when talking about translations.
I think there are 304805 letters in a Sefer Torah but 304850 or 304848 letters in the text as found in a famous manuscript, the 'Leningrad codex', which many academics use. Sefaria is based on the Leningrad codex from tanach.us. I haven't seen a list of the differences, but an example is האלילם/האלילים in Leviticus 19:4.
Aleppo Codex: Archive.org pdf, flash version arranged by book
Berlin Codex (Babylonian niqqud): Seforim Online pdf
British Museum Or. 4445 (B): British Museum
Cairo Codex: Wikipedia pdf, Seforim Online pdf (skewed images, includes intro)
Cairo Genizah: Cambridge, Friedberg Project (partially transcribed)
Damascus Codex: World Digital Library, National ...
Included were Rabbis Yaakov Emden and Moshe Chagiz according to Graetz here and R. Yitzchak Pacifici (פאציפיקו) (the chief rabbi of Venice) as Graetz notes here. This page lists generally the Ashkenazi and Spanish rabbis of Germany, Venice, Poland, Holland, and Denmark as pronouncing the ban.
It should be noted that the ban was actually promulgated; not ...
Your card with the footnoted source from Shem HaGadolim is to provide a source for the statement in chapter 81 on page 49 of Sefer HaDat v'HaChinuch cited and linked in your question.
It is discussing an educator of Jews who has the negative intention of nullifying and disqualifying the Jewish faith of those he is teaching. It states there:
The teacher ...