Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Chayos (assuming he falls under your definition of "Orthodox") discusses this in the opening section of his Iggeres Bikores.
At first astounded at where Rashi conjures this information given that the implication of the gemara is that a targum existed only as far back as the time of Ezra, he concludes that perhaps what Rashi (and others ...
As stated in the comments, and unless a manuscript with the author's name is discovered, we currently have no way of knowing who authored that targum. In fact, already in Rav Hai Gaon's day the author's identity was unknown (!), as he wrote (Teshuvot Ha'Geonim, siman 248):
"אין אנו יודעים תרגום ארץ ישראל מי אמרו."
Translation: "We do not who ...
I'm just going to assume that when you say "authoritative", you mean "valid interpretations of Rabbinic Judaism", and not that it was given to Moshe at Har Sinai or something like that.
From my own experiences, I think that the "average" Orthodox Rabbi probably isn't aware of the Targum Neofiti or of its history, and is thus likely to dismiss it out of ...
Some strange, controversial, or non-halakhic content is the following:
The Targum to Genesis (21:21) lists Yishmael's wives as Adisha and Fatima. Fatima was the wife of Ali and Aisha was the wife of Mohammed. This parallel to Yishmael is striking.
Numbers (24:19) mentions Constantinople. This seems anachronistic for an allegedly Tannaic Targum.
As I learned in the various Aramaic language classes I took in Revel, the yud in these cases is silent, and only exists to show the plurality.
The parallel is to Hebrew, where the yud appears after the segol, but is also entirely unpronounced. For example in אֲבוֹתֶיךָ, it is to be pronounced avotecha, not avoteycha.
See Mishne Berurah 285:3 that even names like Reuvain and Shimon are read שנים מקרא ואחד תרגום. This is based on the Gemara Berachos 8 that even "Ataros veDivon" (city names) whose Targum does not add anything are included in the mitzva of שנים מקרא ואחד תרגום.
The parshios hanesiim clearly have the same halacha and are read in Targum.
The preface to the Oz Vehadar Mikraos Gedolos brings a few more sources besides the ones @Rish brings. I also found a couple on my own.
Rav Binyomin Musfia in his work מוסף הערוך, in ערך אשן ב, and ערך פתרן and ערך צם says Yonasan Ben Uziel didn't write a Targum on Chumash. He also brings a proof that he didn't, in that Numbers 24:24 says וצים מיד כתים, ...
The Maharsha on your Gemara states that he believes Yonatan ben Uziel did not translate the Torah.
אלא שלא היה יונתן חש לפרש התורה אז מטעמא דלקמן דמפרש' מלתא ולא היה מפרש רק נביאים דאיכא מילי דמסתמן עד שבא אונקלוס ופירש לדורו גם התורה
The Chida (שם הגדולים: תרגומים, pg 33-34 here) discusses the question of the origin of Targum Yonatan, bringing various ...
The general scholarly answer is, "We don't really know." On linguistic grounds (i.e. an analysis of its language of Late Literary Jewish Aramaic) it is usually considered a "late" targum, i.e. having been composed between the fourth and sixth centuries CE, and some even push it as late as the seventh to ninth centuries CE. We certainly know nothing of the ...
I realize that this still may not answer the question:
Note that this identification is found in the Talmud Yerushalmi (Shevi'it 16a, also in Kiddushin, see below), as well as the Bavli (Bava Basra 56a), albeit in a different order, although all of these girsaos are questioned by mefarshim to make them uniform.
At this Otzar forum, we find a listing of ...
Perush Yonason asks this question and does not give an answer. I once heard an answer (do not remember from who) which is difficult to accept. Levi lived 137 years in Egypt. The problems with this answer is numerous, and I think this is a question that has no good answer.
The Maharal Teferes Yisroel 65 says that the meaning of Onkelos from Sinai is that the content and meaning of the Targum is in accordance with the tradition from the prophets and not his own innovation.
It seems very difficult to understand Rashi as intending anything else, since Rashi writes:
אונקלוס תרגם לשון מוקש. ואני אומר שלא חש לדקדק בלשון
There do exist a few fragments of a Targum to Job from Qumran (11QtgJob). They can be found online here with an English translation or here as plaintext.
This article by A. S. Van der Woude dates these Targum fragments to the first half of the first century CE. If so, Rabban Gamliel the Elder would have contemporaneous with the manuscript, so it was either a ...
"יקר" here actually means something else.
The root Y-K-R is used by the various Targumim in many places to translate heavy.
Shemos 9:7 reads:
וַיִּכְבַּד לֵב פַּרְעֹה
Onklelos translates as:
וְאִתיַקַר לִיבָא דפרעה
Targum Pseudo-Yonasan translates as:
ואיתייקר יצרא דליבא דפרעה
For more examples of this: see Targumim to Bereishis ...
The Hebrew text of Isaiah 52:14 reads מִשְׁחַת MIShḤAT, which is a noun meaning marring or disfigurement (see the BDB dictionary). This derives from the root שחת, which carries meanings like decay, destruction, corruption; the מ of משחת is part of the form of the noun (ie. there are nouns formed from root letters XYZ that look like miXYaZ, where in this case,...
According to Rabbi Posen in Parshegen I (to Bereishis 23:17, or page 432), every time it is used as an adverb, it is translated as סחור סחור. (Otherwise, it is translated as מקיף etc.) In his opinion, this is because Targum Onkelos cares about certain Hebrew/Aramaic stylistic points, and in this case, what Onkelos noticed is the Hebrew phrase סביב סביב, ...
It seems to be to be related to the word for parching or toasting. See Vayikra 2:14:
וְאִם־תַּקְרִ֛יב מִנְחַ֥ת בִּכּוּרִ֖ים לַיהוָ֑ה אָבִ֞יב קָל֤וּי בָּאֵשׁ֙ גֶּ֣רֶשׂ כַּרְמֶ֔ל תַּקְרִ֕יב אֵ֖ת מִנְחַ֥ת בִּכּוּרֶֽיךָ׃
If you bring a meal offering of first fruits to the LORD, you shall bring new ears parched with fire, grits of the fresh grain, as your ...
Minchas Chinuch 232:4 discusses this, and raises the possibility that maybe he would be violating this lav by doing so. On the other hand, he also comments (quoting Korban Aharon) that if the verse meant this, it would have used the verb תשים rather than תתן, suggesting that in fact it has only the figurative meaning.
שרת"י במדינות on תרגום יונתן cites אגרא דכלה:
ואפשר ס"ל, דלא מנה הכתוב רק אותן שנים אחר שנולדו לו הבנים, ולא מנו
אותן השנים קודם שבא למצרים. ולפי זה היה משה קרוב לשבע שנים כשמת לוי
"Perhaps, he understands that the verse only counted those years after he gave birth to children, and didn't count the years before he arrived in Egypt. According to this, ...
Rabbi Mordechai Hochman, in "הבנים שאינם נראים"( also in "גרשום – 'הגבר' שבחבורה"), brings the question of how could Levi have lived to see Mosheh and Aharon, but also mentions that the same problem exists for Kehat having lived to see Pinchas (i.e. Eliyahu; see Targum [Pseudo-]Yonatan on v. 18).
To answer this, he brings Liqutei Moharan I:173, which says ...
The word ברומא in the Targum to this pasuk means 'on high'.
As you write, Jastrow gives a few possibilities of translating that Aramaic word רומא, in the general case. It could mean "at a height", "haughty", or "Rome".
The etymology for the first two comes from the root רום, in both Biblical Hebrew and in Aramaic. The etymology for the third is unrelated --...
artscroll (here) has started a 5-volume translation and elucidation of Targum Onkelos into English. They have published Bereishit, Shemot, Vayikra and Bamidbar and aim to publish Devarim in September 2020.
To answer part of your question:
Or does it have to be in the order of its name - first shnayim mikra and then echad targum?
The Birur Halacha (Beginning of 285) writes that reading the entire parsha once and then each pasuk followed by it’s Targum, or reading each pasuk once followed by it’s Targum and then the entire parsha once are both valid options ...
Shemos 28 (38)
וְהָיָה֘ עַל־מֵ֣צַח אַֽהֲרֹן֒ וְנָשָׂ֨א אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן
הַקֳּדָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַקְדִּ֨ישׁוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל
לְכָל־מַתְּנֹ֖ת קָדְשֵׁיהֶ֑ם וְהָיָ֤ה עַל־מִצְחוֹ֙ תָּמִ֔יד לְרָצ֥וֹן
לָהֶ֖ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
It shall be upon Aaron's forehead, and
Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things that the children of
According to some translations of Rashi, you have simply misread these cases.
According to the translation of Rashi (Bereishis 43:2) found at Alhatorah (I'm literally too lazy to see which edition it is), the words
והמתרגם: כד ספיקו, טועה הוא
do not mean that Onkelos has made a mistake, but rather it means:
He who has the ...
וא"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא תרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו מפי ר' אליעזר ור' יהושע תרגום של נביאים יונתן בן עוזיאל אמרו מפי חגי זכריה ומלאכי...ועוד ביקש לגלות תרגום של כתובים יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו דייך מ"ט משום דאית ביה קץ משיח...ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו...שכחום וחזרו ויסדום
Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was ...