The Talmud is a central text of Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root lomed "teach, study") is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law-halacha, ethics-mussar, philosophy-hashkafa, customs-minhag and Jewish history.
The Talmud has two components: the mishnah (c. 200 CE), the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law or torah-shebal-peh by the tannaim, and the Gemara (c. 500 CE), a discussion by the amoraim of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the tanakh.
The terms Talmud and Gemara are often used interchangeably. The Gemara is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is much quoted in other rabbinic literature. The whole Talmud is also traditionally referred to as Shas (ש"ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, the "six orders" of the Mishnah.
The process of "Gemara" developed in two major centres of rabbis, Galilee and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud or the talmud-yerushalmi. It was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Latter compilation was the Babylonian Talmud or thetalmud-bavli in about the year 500, although it continued to be edited later. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud.
While the above article correctly states that the overarching term "Talmud" includes the Mishna, please tag questions that only concern the Mishna with the more specific tag mishna.