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17

In the sefer נפוצות יהודה, the explanation is given as follows: Yitzchak represents מדת הדין. Since it was this that was responsible for the destruction of the temples and our exiles, the Tanach hints that eventually, מדת הדין will be dropped in favor of מדת הרחמים in the time of redemption. Since the redemption consists of four stages, as alluded to by the ...


14

This idea, that it's based on a mistaken expansion of 'בשב (meaning 'בשמואל ב) to mean בשבת, comes from R. Baruch Epstein's Mekor Baruch. However, it is demonstrably untrue. The custom of alternating between מגדיל on weekdays and מגדיל on Shabbos is mentioned by Avudraham, who lived in the 14th century. (He doesn't mention the custom of doing so on Yom Tov ...


14

The tav is one of the beged kefet letters, which always takes a dagesh kal, when it starts a new syllable after a previously closed one (i.e. the previous syllable ends with a consonant). To quote from the relevant Wikipedia article: In Hebrew writing with niqqud, a dot in the center of one of these letters, called dagesh ( ּ ), marks the plosive ...


12

Rashi is actually quoting here from Bereshis Rabbah 61. The question is, do we trust the midrash with the text of our sifrei torah, and "fix" the problem accordingly, or do we trust the vast majority of our texts and sifrei torah that have the word with two yud's? Beis Yosef (YD 275), who claims that this problem happens quite often, seems to say (correct ...


10

As Seth noted, it's "עקיבא" in the standard-edition Bavli. However, it's "עקיבה" in the standard-edition Y'rushalmi. There may, for all I know, be exceptions to each of those statements. Aruch Hashulchan writes (about gitin) that there are reasons to write it either way and that both are fine. He then quotes the Maharshal and Taz as saying that (for gitin) ...


8

There is a book called Fixing God's Torah, Barry Levy. It deals with this Rashba. There is a Rebbi Akiva Aiger in Masechet Shabbat (55B) where he has a list of such issues. Also note, in the examples given above, they are letters that the gemara (Kiddushin 30A) says "we are not expert in full and defective spelling" i.e. the use of the vav. The yud is more ...


8

Yaakov with a vav: Leviticus (26:42), Jeremiah (30:18), (33:26), (46:27), (51:19). Eliyahu without a vav: II Kings (1:3), (1:4), (1:8), (1:12), Malachi (3:23).


7

I'll address part of the question, viz: And in the case of Yerachmiel, where the spelling (not just the pronunciation) is different, does halachah recognize the popular spelling as valid for use in official documents like kesubos and gittin, or is the Biblical form supposed to be used? The former: halacha supports the popular spelling. Aruch Hashulchan (...


7

The names of Hashem which may not be erased are listed in Shulchan Oruch Yoreh Daioh 276 (9). Hashem is not one of them and so the hyphenated ("Hash-m") seems unnecessary.


7

I always learned that yes people mistook it saying Shmuel Bet (22:51) instead of Tehillim (18:51) (the pasuk appears twice, with this small change) and started saying it on Shabbat. However I found this source which says that the study of Ketuvim was forbidden on Shabbat and therefore the Shmuel verse had to be recited instead of the Tehillim verse, and ...


7

The Minchas Shai that msh210 referenced in his comment in turn refers to Paaneach Raza, who explains as follows (paraphrasing a lot): The letter yud symbolizes the holiness conferred on a Jew by circumcision and the associated weakening of carnal pleasure (compare Rambam, Moreh Nevuchim 3:49). Appropriately, then, Pinchas, who risked his life to punish ...


7

Midrash Chaseiros VeYeseiros says it's written maleh in three places. Here it's because he acquired six crowns (the value of the letter vav): beauty, strength, wealth, wisdom, leadership and prophecy (Cf. Avos 6:8). This is also stated in Midrash Minyanin. The other two are Joshua 24:31 (although if you follow the link it's chaser) and Judges 2:7, teaching ...


6

In this article by Gil Student titled "On the Text of the Torah", this and other textual issues are discussed. In the article (In the Aggadic Midrash section ) he proposes that it was actually pretty common practice for the Rabbis to deliberately "change" the word in order to drive home a homiletic point. from the article (please read it for context and ...


6

As mentioned here, different spellings of names that refer to the same person are not uncommon in Tanach. Deeper, esoteric meanings are associated with the changing of spellings. As a general rule, therefore, you will not find commentators of the p'shat approach that will address these spelling changes. In this case , the most famous answer is that of the ...


6

A quick search shows that יאל does not seem to appear in Tanach, nor in the Mishna or Gemara. Wikipedia does not acknowledge this variant spelling either for Yael, though it's the way they transliterate Yahel Ernesto Castillo Huerta's name into Hebrew, probabaly to differentiate it from Yael. It appears that Larry Gonick either made that up, was ...


6

The Aleppo, Leningrad, and Damascus Codices all have it Rafeh. Even the original Bomberg Mikraot Gedolot has it Rafeh! Minchat Shai ad loc. comments that it should be Rafeh. I did find that the Codex Bodmer 21 does have it with a Dagesh but given the evidence this should clearly be disregarded. I note all the above sources (even Bodmer) have a Tarcha (a ...


6

The gemara in sotah 10b says it is because he was מקדש שם שמים בסתר by not falling for אשת פוטיפר. The context can be understood as referring to יוסף's time in Egypt and hence this is an appropriate place to make that reference.


5

The Minchas Shai does, he brings different readings and see from the words acher kach matzati B'Mordichai(pg 32) but better to see the whole thing. http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=14036&st=&pgnum=32


5

The grammatical function of the mapiq (which can occur with an alef as well as a he) is to indicate that the letter is a consonant. (The alternative is that the letter is mater lectionis indicating a particular vowel.) Whether a he-mapiq indicates possessive is a matter of context. The Divine name yod-he, for instance, is always spelled with a mapiq, ...


5

I don't know how these words are said, I'm guessing the vowelization is גַרְעִינִין or גַרְעֵינִין or maybe גַרְעֵינְיָן? Either way, unless you're trying to be particularly makpid on pronunciation, ayin-tsere-malei or ayin-hirik-malei sound a lot like their aleph-based counterparts. Languages also tend to be forgiving when there's no easily-confusable ...


5

The Beis Shmuel in Even Ha'ezer says that with regards to Gitin there are two opinions. He suggests one should write with an hei, but if one normally signs with a aleph that is how he should write. There are different simanim for both names shown here. One famous siman is that the author of the "Or Zarua" saw in a dream the verse of "Or Zarua Latzadik ...


5

I'm not sure what light you want shed on this other than not to trust the Mikraot Gedolot for fine issues of proper nusach hamikra. The Aleppo, Leningrad, Bodmer, Damascus, and Cairo Codices (9th to 12th centuries) all have a כ. Bomberg's Mikraot Gedolot (2nd edition, 16th century, seen below) has a ב. Bomberg's edition is notorious for small errors, but its ...


5

The various spellings are trying to get at a vowel-less pronunciation of the final syllable: the syllabic n (for example, some English dialects pronounce "button" as "but'n", with a syllabic n at the end). From Uriel Weinreich's dictionary, in the section on non-YIVO-standard orthography: a superfluous ע is sometimes written before final ל or ן to mark ...


5

Ibn Ezra says it's a more glorious version of Joseph's name, used here because "Joseph" refers to the Jewish people.


4

I am not an expert in Biblical Hebrew grammar, but it would seem based on the below commentary of the Torah Temimah that it has to do with the vowelization of the word throughout Tanach. The mem is generally vowellized with a chirik, and therefore does not need to be written with a yud to be pronounced properly, but in some cases it is not vowellized this ...


4

I like Alex's answer. I would suggest that, according to the Zohar, it is quite possible that only one Pinchas (the one in Parshat Pinchas with the small yud) in the Torah is written plene, that is, malei yud. And all others it is written deficient, that is, chaser. See my two posts (here and here) on this matter, basically presenting Minchas Shai on ...


4

In the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud Bavli it is spelled עקיבא with an Alef at the end. I'm not sure how much more authoritative a source you're looking for.


4

Rashi's text is not necessarily better than ours. More problematic is the couple of places where its clear that the gemara has a slightly different text than we do. (For example, in Mes. Sukkah the Gemara has a different number of 'vavs' in "sukkos".) Most, if not all, of the rishonim who discuss this issue say the text of the Torah should be changed to ...


4

Perhaps these words that Chazal are asking about were not words used on a daily basis and therefore it was unclear how to pronounce them.


4

Well, presumably Rashi had a different version. The question is — and is asked by the Mizrachi and the Minchas Shay — that no extant m'sora agrees with him. They offer no answer.


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