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I addresses this question in a relatively recent essay from earlier this year (see here, also published here). Basically, the Talmud (Yoma 36b) explains that chet refers to an inadvertent sin (the state of mind known as shogeg), avon refers to wanton/intentional sins (meizid), and pesha refers to sins of rebellion. Other sources say that chet means "lack" ...


4

The gemara on Shabbat 148b: ואמר ליה רבא בר רב חנן לאביי תנן לא מספקין ולא מטפחין ולא מרקדין ביו"ט וקא חזינן דעבדין ולא אמרינן להו ולא מידי ולטעמיך הא דאמר רבא לא ליתיב איניש אפומא דלחייא דילמא מיגנדר ליה חפץ ואתי לאיתויי והא קא חזינן נמי דמותבי חצבי ויתבן אפומא דמבואה ולא אמרינן להו ולא מידי אלא הנח לישראל מוטב שיהו שוגגין ואל יהו מזידין סבור מינה הנ"מ ...


1

Rema to Orach Chaim 608:2 limits the application of this principle to any law which is not explicit in the Torah (even if it is treated as a biblical law) such as the requirement to begin observing Yom Kippur a short while before sunset.


4

Rav Hirsch writes that usage of מנחה as a flour-and-oil offering is imprecise: The מנחה offering in the Sanctuary is an offering of flour and oil. But we do find מנחה as a general term for offerings - even for animal offerings; thus in Malachi 1:10, 1:13, and 2:13, and throughout the book of Malachi. Outside the Sanctuary, מנחה denotes a gift, a sign of ...


7

This is explicitly addressed in Avodah Zarah 3:7: שְׁלשָׁה בָתִּים הֵן. בַּיִת שֶׁבָּנוּי מִתְּחִלָּה לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. סִיְּדוֹ וְכִיְּרוֹ לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְחִדֵּשׁ, נוֹטֵל מַה שֶּׁחִדֵּשׁ. הִכְנִיס לְתוֹכָה עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְהוֹצִיאָהּ, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. There are three houses: (1) A house which was initially built for idolatry, ...


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The online Jewish Encyclopedia ('Original Sin') states: Man is responsible for sin because he is endowed with free will ("beḥirah"); yet he is by nature frail, and the tendency of the mind is to evil: "For the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth" (Gen. viii. 21; Yoma 20a; Sanh. 105a). Therefore God in His mercy allowed man to repent and be ...


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You asked, "if there is a similarity in Judaism with the Christian's point of view of Original Sin." You went on to also quote "medieval commentators", suggesting to me that a quote from the Talmud/Gemara would be acceptable. Therefore, without suggesting that the following is a main view, the answer is yes, there is / was, "a similarity in Judaism with ...


-1

Your first quote is only relevant for a Beis Din, for Earthy punishments. One can not offer himself to be stoned instead of his son that sinned, for example. Traditionally (source needed) the souls are reincarnations of previous souls, bearing their deeds and judgments. Similarly to the 9-dots-4 lines puzzle, as we are unable to solve the justice/injustice ...


2

According to Sanhedrin 27b, children are punished for their fathers’ sins only when they follow in their footsteps; children who do not follow the sins of their fathers are not punished on their account. ובנים בעון אבות לא והכתיב (שמות לד, ז) פוקד עון אבות על בנים התם כשאוחזין מעשה אבותיהן בידיהן Are children not punished for their fathers’ sins? But ...


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