Shulchan Aruch CM 396:9 says (my own loose translation):
מסרו השומר לשומר אחר, והיזק - חייב; ששומר שמסר לשומר חייב. אפילו שומר
חנם שמסר לשומר שכר, ואם הזיק - חייב השומר הראשון לשלם לניזק וילך לעשות
דין עם השומר השני.
If a shomer gave the item to a second shomer and it was damaged - he is responsible; as the rule is that, "A shomer who gives over ...
If I understand correctly, the Mishnah is discussing a case where someone (Reuven) stole from one of two people (Shimon or Levi) but doesn't remember which is the victim. Shimon claims he's the victim, and Levi claims he's the victim. The Mishnah rules Reuven must give the full amount to both plantiffs.
The Gemarah notes that it seems that the court will ...
In some conditions he can leave, in some else he becomes Shomer Aveda. Let's look Chazal and poskim.
1.Mitsvat Hashavat Aveda remains for ever.
The Mishna BM 28b stated that a part of lost objects which produces and consumes, will continue to produce and consume. Something which doesn't will be sold. Gemara asked, according to Rashi understanding, "...
The Midrash (Koheles 7:28, cited by Messilas Yesharim chapter 1) writes (translation mine)
When God created Adam he took him to see all the trees of the Garden
of Eden and told him "Look at my creations; how beautiful and
praiseworthy they are. All that I have created, I created [only] for
you. Be careful not to ruin and destroy my world."
Shulchan Aruch, in Choshen Mishpat 291, says:
[:1] An unpaid watchman is exempt, with an oath, for theft and loss and is liable to pay only for breach of duty.
[:2] An unpaid watchman is someone who was given money, items, an animal, or anything to watch and who accepted the responsibility to watch it.…
And in 294:
[:2] …If [the ...
The Chofetz Chaim in Ahavat Chessed part 2 chapter 22 writes about a borrower
He must beware not to break the terms stipulated by the lender. If he
does, he is termed a gazlan (robber). He may not use the borrowed
article for any purpose not stipulated, nor may he retain beyond the
Your case here is one of a guardian, not a borrower,...
Your question is so good that it is one of the questions of the Gemara in BK 106B
איתיביה רבי חייא בר אבא לר' יוחנן היכן שורי נגנב משביעך אני ואמר אמן והעדים מעידים אותו שאכלו משלם תשלומי כפל והא הכא דאי אפשר לכזית בשר בלא שחיטה וקתני משלם תשלומי כפל תשלומי כפל אין תשלומי ד' וה' לא
The context of this phrase is the Gemara test to refute an opinion.
וְהָאָרֶץ, לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת--כִּי-לִי, הָאָרֶץ: כִּי-גֵרִים וְתוֹשָׁבִים אַתֶּם, עִמָּדִי. (Vayikrah 25:23)
From this pasuk, it seems that we are merely taking care of it, but the Earth still belongs to Hashem.
I can't say if the planet Earth, itself is a gift. It's unclear from your question what you are referring to. However, Talmud Brachot 35a resolves 2 seemingly opposing verses from Tehillim (Psalms) - "The earth and its whole are God's" and the verse "The heavens are heavens to G-d and the earth he gave to the children of man." In resolving this, the Talmud ...
This is clearly a case of a Shomer-Chinam; asking somebody to
safeguard your item without being paid for it.
The Halacha is that a Shomer-Chinam is not responsible for any damages
unless the damage was caused by his negligence.
So if the camera dropped because he balanced it on his head, for
example, then he would be expected ...