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14

Chanoch and Ariel K are correct in their answer, but one can answer at greater length and detail. The letters beged kefet, בגד כפת are distinguished from other Hebrew letters in taking a dagesh kal, a 'weak' dagesh, at the start of words or after a shva nach. The function of this dagesh kal is to distinguish between the plosive and fricative versions of the ...


14

The Gra writes (Shenot Eliyahu to Brachot 1:1) that you have to read Shema yourself and you cannot fulfill your obligation by listening to another. (This is not universally agreed to, but see the next point.) As for the blessings, the whole point of having a Chazzan starting from (just before) Barchu is for him to recite the blessings of Keriat Shema out ...


13

http://www.chabadyavne.com/contents.asp?fid=82&av=2327 The Piskei Teshuvos 61:5 mentions from the Arizal that the hand has to actually cover the eyes. However the Kloizenberger Rebbe Zatzal held that you may just cover the glasses with your hand. In Chabad they lift the glasses and place the hand on the eyes.


12

Yalkut Yosef 61:4 ואין צריך להסיר המשקפיים בעת שנותן ידיו על עיניו בקריאת שמע.‏ He holds you don't have to remove the glasses.


12

The Torah commands us regarding emotions all the time, e.g.: "Don't bear a grudge", "don't hate your fellow in your heart", "don't harbor resentment when you give [charity] to him", "because you didn't serve Hashem your Lord with happiness and a glad heart", "don't despise the Edomite, for he is your brother; don't despise the Egyptian, for you were a ...


12

Rabbi Richard Sarason, a faculty member at Hebrew Union College (the Reform seminary), talks about the history of these passages in an article about the newest siddur, Mishkan T'filah. He writes (emphasis mine): The earliest Reform congregational prayer book (Hamburg, 1819) includes all three paragraphs of the Sh'ma. [...] The deletion of the second and ...


11

I saw it once at my shul on a Sunday morning. After minyan there is usually some people that learn in the beit midrash afterwards. One time, someone came in and had missed minyan. He put on his tefillin and started davening to himself. When he got to Yishtabach, he klopped on the shulchan and finished it out loud and said barchu. Then he continued to himself....


11

Yotzer Or and Yotzer Hameorot are actually part of the same long bracha. It has both an opening an closing bracha. See Rambam, Hilchot Kriat Shma 1:5-7. Halacha 5 says: הקורא קריאת שמע מברך לפניה ולאחריה ביום מברך שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה ובלילה מברך שתים לפניה ושתים לאחריה. In the morning, there are 2 before Shma, and 1 after. For night, it's 2 and 2. ...


11

Covering One’s Eyes During the Recitation of Shema cites the following explanation as give by Rabbi Eli J Mansour According to Kabbalistic teaching, one should cover his eyes during Shema while positioning his fingers in the shape of the letters “Shin,” “Dalet” and “Yod,” which spell the Divine Name of “Sha-dai.” This is done by bringing the three ...


11

Because the literature surrounding the Shema is quite vast, I will bring only general essentials below. Text of the Shema, referenced below: Deut. 6 שְׁמַע יִשרָאֵל יי אֱלהֵינוּ יי אֶחָד: בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוד מַלְכוּתו לְעולָם וָעֶד: Deut. 6 וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יי אֱלהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאדֶךָ: וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה ...


10

Ma'ase Rav Siman 39 says that the GR"A would not kiss his Tzitzit during Keriyat Shema. The Kovetz Mepharshim (printed on the side in the Weinrab edition) supposes that he did so because he held that when saying the third paragraph of Keriyat Shema one should gaze at his tzitziyot (see biur hagra O"H on Siman 24 seif katan 8), and kissing them breaks his ...


10

There is no Miswa of Sisit at night (see Rabenu Behaye to Numbers 15:38-39).


10

The issue is discussed in detail by R' Hamburger in Volume 4 of his priceless series, Shorshei Minhag Ashkenaz, and a bit shorther, but in English in the kitzur edition. His main point is that in Ashkenaz most Jews became unfamiliar with the proper melody of Torah reading over the centuries (see Orach Chayim 61:24), so they didn't read it anymore aloud and ...


9

The source for Birnbaum's account is Shibbolei Haleket, citing a Geonic teshuvah (and quoted from there in Otzar Hageonim to Megillah 23b). The king is named there as יוזגרד - i.e., Yezdegerd (II) of Persia (ruled 438-457), although there's no mention of spies being there for part of davening and then leaving - on the contrary, the Gaon writes that the ...


9

Love is an emotion and cannot be controlled in that way Which is generally wrong according to R.Desler. At this site I found the citation from his book הרב דסלר זצ"ל בספרו "מכתב מאליהו" (קונטרס החסד), ניסח כך נושא זה: "יותר ממה שהנתינה באה בעקבות האהבה, האהבה באה בעקבות הנתינה". "Love is caused by Giving more than Love causes Giving" So, if you ...


9

The Talmud (Berakhot 13b) is the original source for this custom. Here there is a mention of Rabbi Judah the Prince covering his eyes while he said the Shema to block out the distractions of the students around him. This behavior was codified in the Shulhan Arukh (OH 61:4-5). from http://www.myjewishlearning.com/ask_the_expert/at/Ask_the_Expert--...


9

The Sefer Hachinuch interprets this verb as the source that the commandment stated here is to believe in God, and not merely to profess belief in God. His piece on Commandment 417 begins: מצות אחדות השם - שנצטוינו להאמין כי השם יתברך הוא הפועל כל המציאות, אדון הכל, אחד בלי שום שתוף, שנאמר (דברים ו ד) שמע ישראל יי אלהינו יי אחד, וזה מצות עשה הוא, אינה הגדה,...


9

Mishna Berakhot 2:1 היה קורא בתורה, והגיע זמן המקרא--אם כיוון את ליבו, יצא; ואם לאו, לא יצא.‏ If he was reading in the Torah and it came time to read [Shema]: if he intended, he fulfilled his obligation, and if not, he did not. (my translation) Rambam (Shema 2:1) and ShA (OC 60:5) rule this way as well. So "assuming he has the proper kavana (intent)...


8

שם - a name refers to reputation, or how something is known. טוב שם משמן טוב (Koheles 7:1) means a good reputation is better than oil. One who is מוציא שם רע - וְשָׂם לָהּ עֲלִילֹת דְּבָרִים, וְהוֹצִא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רָע (Devarim 22:14) - has created a bad reputation. The idea of a name is that which you use for others to relate to you - one does not ...


8

The correct order to perform the Mitzvos would be: 1 - Krias Shema(which is most frequent) 2 - Birchas Hamazon 3 - Sefiras Haomer Many people are accustomed to recite Krias Shema after Birchas Hamazon, even though Krias Shema is the more frequent Mitzvah. The reason why many permit this is that one is not obligated to interrupt his ...


8

The First Chabad Rebbe, known as the Alter Rebbe (and also known as "The Rav (Ba'al HaTanya)", the author of Shulchan Aruch Harav) writes in his Siddur: יחיד המתפלל לעצמו יחזור תיבות אני ה' אלהיכם An individual praying alone should repeat the words Ani Hashem Eloheichem This is to exclude minhag ashkenaz (and what he writes in his Shulchan Aruch) ...


8

אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם יַחֵד שִׁמְךָ וְקַיֵּם מַלְכוּתְךָ תָּמִיד וּמְלֹךְ עָלֵינוּ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד Eloheinu shebashamayim yached shim'cha v'kayem malchut'cha tamid um'loch aleinu l'olam va'ed. Our G-d who is in Heaven, unify Your Name and establish Your kingdom always, and rule over us forever and ever. ~From the evening prayers


8

No it cannot. In fact, one cannot even recite shema twice in the period between alot hashachar and hanetz hachamah to count for the evening and morning readings. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 58:5: אם נאנס ולא קרא ק"ש ערבית עד שעלה עמוד השחר כיון שעדיין לא הנץ החמה קורא ק"ש ויוצא בה ידי חובת קריאת שמע ערבית ואם היה אנוס באותה שעה לצאת לדרך מקום גדודי חיה ...


7

I don't believe it says anywhere that you have to put your hand over your eyes. "(They) are accustomed to pace their hands over their face when reading the 1st pasuk so that one won't stare at anything else that will deter him from concentrating." (SA OC 61:5) It isn't clear from the Shulchan Aruch whether it is 1 hand or both. Although the source for ...


7

Kitzur Shulcah Aruch1 17:1 says of the Sh'ma: After a third of the day has passed, one should recite the Shema alone, without the blessings, because it is forbidden to recite the blessings beyond this time. The Shema itself, though, may be recited the entire day. (Other authorities also allow the recitation of the blessings throughout the day.) A ...


7

He should say Shema absolutely immediately as the printed time may not be completely exact. (See ShA OC 46:9 with commentaries. The assumption there is that one who can't say the blessings of Shema then (because he needs to say them just prior to his Amida which must be said with a Minyan) should still say Shema at its proper time without its blessings even ...


7

Shulchan Aruch Harav (OC 58:1) brings three opinions as to which parts of shema are d'oraisoh (all the opinions he brings agree that at least some part is d'oraisoh): R' Eliezer (Berachos 21a) is of the opinion that just the first paragraph of shema is d'oraisoh. The second opinion is that also the second paragraph of shema is d'oraisoh (רמב"ם פ"א ...


7

As already source by Noach miFrankfurt in his answer, the German Minhag and likely original minhag Ashkenaz, was only to hold the front corners. This is also the practice of the Vilna Gaon (as recorded in the siddur Eizor Eliyahu), because he strongly felt that it was important for tzitzis to be worn with two of them in front and two in back. The Shulchan ...


7

Berachot 13a ת"ר ק"ש ככתבה דברי רבי וחכ"א בכל לשון מ"ט דרבי אמר קרא והיו בהוייתן יהו ורבנן מאי טעמייהו אמר קרא שמע בכל לשון שאתה שומע ולרבי נמי הא כתיב שמע ההוא מבעי ליה השמע לאזניך מה שאתה מוציא מפיך Our Rabbis taught: The Shema’ must be recited as it is written. So Rabbi. The Sages, however, say that it may be recited in any language. What ...


6

You wash your hands before davenings and with a bracha only before the shacharit one (assuming you have gone to the bathroom since davening maariv which seems highly likely) You never say Birkot Hatorah as you never really take a break. Ideally you can have someone be motzi you in them after olot hashachar. You can say Birkot HaShachar starting from chatzot ...


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