That David died on both Shavuos and Shabbos is not necessarily true. The source that David died on Shavuos can be found in Yerushalmi in Beitzah 11a (2:4) and Chagigah 12a (2:3), but in neither place does it say anything about Shabbos. The source that David died on Shabbos is Bavli Shabbos 30a-b, but they don’t say anything about Shavuos. As all of these are ...
Although many good answers exist here already, I want to provide somewhat of a more comprehensive response (as best as I can) by putting all the answers I know of in one place.
There are three overall ways to answer the question "why do we associate Shavuos with Matan Torah if that is not how it is presented in Tanakh?" One can respond either (I) by saying ...
Rav S.R. Hirsch in the Collected Writings Vol.1 in an article entitled "The Uniqueness of the Torah" writes that the connection between Shavuos and Matan Torah is only stated in the Torah Shebaal Peh in order to teach us that someone who does not accept the Torah Shebaal Peh never has had a Kabolas Hatorah
The very article you link to answers the question!
It's permissible to go to sleep on Shabbat in order to be awake after Shabbat, however, one shouldn’t say that one is doing so for that purpose. [Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 28:72]
As explained in שו"ת הריב"ש 96 and brought in Shulchan Aruch Harav there is no inherent connection between Shavuos and Mattan Torah. Shavuos doesn't happen on a fixed date, and Mattan Torah wasn't even the same number of days after Pesach as Shavuos.
However, since the fixed calendar puts Shavuos on the 6th of Sivan, which is the date of Mattan Torah (...
They would take out a separate Sefer Torah and read the curses, in addition to the standard weekly parshah.
Source: I heard it directly from a well-known rav, who based it on the Rambam Hil. Tefillah, 13:1-2.
This question was discussed ~2,000 years ago in the Talmud in Tractate Menachot folios 65b - 66a.
Multiple answers are given - with proofs from the Bible - why the "morrow after the Sabbath" refers to the 2nd day of Pessach and not to [the following] Sunday.
Here's the original. You can read this in English here.:
איתותב חגא דשבועיא דלא ...
The Pri Eitz Chaim writes:
והנה מה שראוי לקרות בליל שבועות, כדי להמשיך הכתר הנ"ל, הוא זה, שתקרא ג' פסוקים ראשונים, וג' אחרונים, מכל סדר וסדר, ואם נזדמן לו פרשה פתוחה מד' או ה' פסוקים, בין בתחלת הפרשה בין בסוף הפרשה, צריך לקרותה. בפרשת בראשית עד לעשות, סוף פרשת ויכולו. וכן מכל נביא ונביא, וכן של כתובים, וכבר נדפס:
(נ"א מע"ח - צריך לקרות דניאל ...
Two basic answers exist to this question:
In reality, when the calendar was decided by testimony of the new moon, this phrase probably did not exist in the prayers. Maseches Sofrim 19:4 writes:
בחג שבועות אומר ביום טוב מקרא קודש הזה וביום חג השבועות הזה וערבית
שחרית ומנחה שוין בתפלות
In fact, the Ritva (to Shabbos 86b) and Rivash (Shut no. 96) imply ...
In Tephichas BeDevash 24 by Rav Chiya Pontromili (a Sefardi Rav from the 19th century quoted here) writes:
ואף שנהגו ישראל להיות ערים בליל שבועות אפילו שחל בשבת, מכל מקום שונה ליל שבועות מליל שבת, משום שבליל שבועות יש בו סודות גדלים, שעל ידי נדידת השינה ולימוד התורה בעשרה הנעשה באותו הלילה, מתקנים תכשיטים לכלה, וכמה מעלות טובות מפורשות בזוהר הקדוש על ענין ...
Deuteronomy (33:2) states:
וַיֹּאמַר, ה' מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ--הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן, וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ; מִימִינוֹ, אשדת (אֵשׁ דָּת) לָמוֹ.
And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, and rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, and He came from the myriads holy, at His right hand was a fiery law unto them. (...
R Eli Mansour explains here
During the times of the Beth Hamikdash, those who were unable to bring
their sacrifices on the day of Shavuot itself – which in Israel is
celebrated only on the sixth of Sivan - were allowed to do so during
the six days following Shavuot, through the twelfth of Sivan
As such some don't say Tahanun in the week after ...
Rav Yehoshua ibn Shu’ib, Rabbi Mordecai ben Abraham Benet, and the Mateh Moshe (Laws of Shavuot 690) explain that for this reason the more general word 'time' is used instead of the more precise 'day' (the term usually used to refer to a one day holiday), because it hasn't always been the exact day, but it always is in the general time frame of Matan Torah. ...
This question is discussed in Chevel Nachalato 8:13, where a number of contemporary Rabbis' approaches are presented.
R. Avigdor Nebenzahl writes that he knows of no good answer to the question, but does note some hints to the shtei halechem, such as Chabad's text of ושני שעירים לכפר as part of musaf.
R. Ya'akov Epstein suggests that there is a hesitance ...
The Torah mandates "simcha" on Yom Tov. The Talmud understands "simcha" to refer to eating meat and wine. Hence, the obligation to eat meat on Yom Tov.
The exact parameters of this obligation are subject to much debate among the Poskim. The fours assumptions you quote are held by some Rabbis and rejected by others. As always, ask your LOR.
The obligation ...
This was the opinion of the Boethusians in the time of the second temple. This reading of the verse was rejected as it is not the interpretation of the Sages of the Mishna. The basis of the dispute is the word sabbbath - does this mean the sabbath ie. the 7th day of the week, or does it mean "week", the Boethusian interpretation would make no sense in this ...
There was a case with a group of shochtim who could not get a minyon for Shacharis on a Monday or Thursday. They were able to meet during their lunch break to have a minyon to lein.
Update: Found this reference Can the Torah be read in shul if a minyan is present after the point in the service designated for Torah reading?
One Monday there was a mess up ...
See yeshiva.org.il who writes
יב. בליל שבועות אין מתפללין ערבית מבעו"י, אלא מאחרין להתפלל בצאת
הכוכבים כדי שיהיו ימי הספירה מ"ט יום תמימות (מ"ב תצד ס"ק ד). וכן
נוהגים בקהילות רבות,
אמנם בקהילות אשכנזיות מסויימות נוהגים להתפלל
ערבית ולקדש מבעו"י אף בליל שבועות,
ויש קהילות שמתפללים ערבית מבעו"י
וממתינים עם הקידוש עד צאת ...
The question was asked by the Satmer Rav quoted here. As cited there he answered
The customs are indeed appropriate. On the day when trees are “judged,” we are interested in determining the success of the tree during the previous year. That is done by assessing what it has produced. On the other hand, when our focus is on the fruit and we want to assess ...
The Ta'amei Haminhagim (618) mentions this reason:
The reason that we are awake all night on the night of Shavuos and are busy with (learning) Torah is because the Bnei Yisrael slept all night and Hashem had to wake them, as we see in the Midrash. Therefore we need to fix this. (Magen Avraham OC:494)
Magen Avraham was written mid-17th Century
First of all, Rema adds in Orach Chayim 490:9 that we read Ruth on Shavuot. Here Magen Avraham quotes Yalkut Shimoni on Ruth (596 at the end):
מה ענין רות אצל עצרת, שנקראת בזמן מתן תורה? ללמדך שלא נתנה תורה, אלא על ידי יסורין ועוני וכו'
What is the connection between Ruth and Atzeret, so that it is read on Atzeret, the time of the giving of the Torah? To ...
The calendar you're talking about wasn't invented yet. For example, on Rosh haShanah 21a-b there is a discussion about years when both Nissan and Elul are short, whether one has to worry about the possibility of 2 short months in a row, and the like. So the calendar we used wasn't fixed yet.
There is a discussion among rishonim as to whether in the Beis ...
While your thought, that the Vilna Gaon only prohibited trees, has become popular recently with the popularization of Christmas trees, it's not historically accurate. He prohibited greenery on Shavuot because it paralleled the greenery set up in churches (especially Orthodox ones) for Pentecost (the Christian holiday which parallels Shavuot) which commonly ...
Pesachim 47a (with translation and elucidation from Sefaria):
שאני התם דאמר קרא לכם לכם ולא לגבוה
The Gemara answers: It is different there, in the case of the two loaves, as the verse says: “No kind of labor shall be done on them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done for you” (Exodus 12:16). This indicates that it is permitted ...
Rambam discusses the different day lengths of the three holidays in Guide for the Perplexed 3:43. Quotes are from the Friedlander translation:
The Feast of Tabernacles, which is a feast of rejoicing and gladness,
is kept seven days, in order that the idea of the festival may be more
but if the eating of unleavened ...
The Shulchan Aruch brings (תצ"ד, ג):
נוהגין הרבה להיות נעורים כל הלילה לעסוק בתורה
Quoting the Zohar (מ"א שם ד"ה איתא, בשם הזהר ח"א ח, א. ח"ג צח, רע"א. ח"י שם)
The Aruch HaShulchan (תצ"ד, ג) reinstates the connections to Mattan Torah and links it to a Zohar:
והחסידים הקדמונים היו נעורים כל הלילה כדאיתא בזוהר וגם עתה הרבה עושים כן... והכל זכר למתן ...
One answer is that it is juxtaposed with the giving of the Torah - but the giving of the second Tablets on Yom Kippur, not the first tablets on Shavuos. This is explained at length in several places in Chabad Chassidus. One of them is here.
The Meshech Chochma says that on Shmini Atzers Zos HaBracha was read anyway. The Talmud which describes reading Zos ...
Chanuka is inherently connected to Sukkot where the Musaf offering includes a "countdown" of bulls. Sefirat HaOmer, on the other hand, is a biblical command to count 50 days from the offering of the Korban Omer which only makes sense incrementally since the actual date of the latter korban of the shtei halechem is dependent on that of the former of the omer.
The Ramchal in Da'as Tevunos siman 158 s.v. ומה שיש לנו לדעת (p. 170 in Friedlander edition) explains that the the spiritual ability to keep the Torah is what was given to the Jewish people at Har Sinai. In the following paragraph, ותראי, he writes:
ותראי כי זה מה שעשה האדון ב"ה לישראל בהר סיני, שהנה לא נתן להם שם התורה כולה במעמד ההוא, אבל הייתה הכנה ...