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8

The gemarra you cite in the comments (Sanhedrin 58b) is the source that a non-Jew is forbidden from observing Shabbos: ואר"ל עובד כוכבים ששבת חייב מיתה שנא' (בראשית ח, כב) ויום ולילה לא ישבותו ואמר מר אזהרה שלהן זו היא מיתתן אמר רבינא אפי' שני בשבת Even though you are correct it says עובד כוכבים, an idol worshipper, it is well known that the Talmud ...


5

So this is a really fascinating topic that has bamboozled many meforshim and thinkers over the years. The Talmudology website here helps to comprehensively break it down. He first notes Rashi who says: שפופרת - קנה חלול וכשהוא ארוך אין צופין בו למרחוק וכשהוא קצר צופין בו יותר והיתה שפופרת של רבן גמליאל מתוקנת למדת צפיית אלפים או בים או ביבשה A tube: It was ...


4

Assuming everything has been completed from that deal, it is permitted. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 307:6 writes this explicitly; see Mishnah Berurah and Aruch Hashulchan for further details, including the suggestion that one nevertheless refrain from such idle talk, even though it certainly does not violate the prohibition of discussing business: אסור לחשב ...


3

As far as this: Or is there any source which addresses when to put on Shabbos clothes on Friday? It is worth noting the breakdown here based on the Shulchan Aruch HaRav When on Erev Shabbos should one put on his Shabbos clothes:1 It is proper2 that one garb himself in Shabbos clothes immediately after bathing himself for Shabbos. For this reason, it is ...


3

It could be a tube on a stand at a fixed angle. When looking through it you can only see what what its pointing at and you always know how far the furthest item is from you. For an example how this device worked. Take a paper towel tube and attach it to a broom stick at a downwards angle, now look through it and see until where you can see now measure that ...


2

פַּעַם אַחַת לֹא נִכְנְסוּ לַנָּמָל עַד שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מָה אָנוּ לֵירֵד. אָמַר לָהֶן, מֻתָּר אַתֶּם, שֶׁכְּבָר הָיִיתִי מִסְתַּכֵּל, וְהָיִינוּ בְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם עַד שֶׁלֹּא חֲשֵׁכָה: The mishna further relates that on one occasion, they did not enter the port [namel] until after nightfall on Shabbat eve. The others said to ...


1

Tefilas HaDerech is said on Shabbos if one needs to travel (for example for childbirth, danger, etc.) See here הנוסע בשבת מפני הסכנה, או שמלוה חולה שיש בו סכנה, חייב לומר תפילת הדרך. However Ishei Yisrael 50:28 says that one should never say Tefilas HaDerech on Shabbos. See here However then makes exceptions. אין לומר תפילת הדרך בשבת, דאין לבקש צרכיו ...


1

We light a fire in havdalla to commemerate Adam making the first fire on motzai Shabbos. It's not mentioned anywhere that Adam lit a fire for the mitzva of havdalla. The Rosh on Torah says that on erev Shabbos, Adam didn't need to make a fire because it was light. The first time it got dark was motzai Shabbos. That was when Hashem taught Adam how to make a ...


1

In the book Divrei Yoel, also by the Satmar Rav, the same idea is brought, and it seems the editors were also perplexed as to the source of this idea. They tracked down one book which says something similar, but in the name of unnamed commentators (Edut Beyosef, Matot-Masei, pg. 41): "ולי נראה דמפרשים פירשו גבי סיחון ועוג היה בערב שבת לכן העמיד משה ...


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