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10

There is no Halachic issue SA YD 201.7 Rema הגה: מותר לעשותו על הגג ובלבד שלא יהיה תוך כלי או אבן אחת שחקקו ולבסוף קבעו אבל חבור אבנים הרבה לא מקרי כלי (תשובת הרשב"א סימן ת"ת):‏ Its allowed to make it on the roof, but not in a container or a stone that was already inground before to be fixed. However stone assembly is not a utensil.


8

As I wrote in this answer: According to Ralbag (Commentary to Parshas Lech Lecha), the promise was not that Avraham's descendants would be as numerous as the stars. Rather the promise was that they would be hard to count like the stars. Ralbag says this because he was of the opinion that there are actually very few stars (approximately 1,022) and thus a ...


7

They are not created, they are formed by means of the natural laws from preexisting matter. This has nothing to do with yesh mai-ayin (creation from nothing) which occurred at the very beginning. We usually talk of star formation in terms of the gas mass that is converted into stars each year. Indeed as Rashi and others point out on Bereishis 1:14 Yesh ...


6

Sanhedrin 98a ואמר רבי אבא אין לך קץ מגולה מזה שנאמר (יחזקאל לו, ח) ואתם הרי ישראל ענפכם תתנו ופריכם תשאו לעמי ישראל וגו'‏ And Rabbi Abba says: You have no more explicit manifestation of the end of days than this following phenomenon, as it is stated: “But you, mountains of Israel, you shall give your branches, and yield your fruit to My people ...


6

The 18-minute rule is one of a few heuristics offered by the Talmud for determining whether a dough has become chametz. These are summarized by the Rambam in Hilchot Chametz Umatza 5:13: כל זמן שאדם עוסק בבצק אפילו כל היום כולו אינו בא לידי חמוץ. ואם הגביה ידו והניחו ושהה הבצק עד שהגיע להשמיע הקול בזמן שאדם מכה בידו עליו כבר החמיץ וישרף מיד. ואם אין קולו ...


6

R. Menachem Meiri (Beis Habechirah Sanhedrin 67b) writes as follows: כל שהוא נעשה בפעולה טבעית אינו בכלל כשפים אפילו ידעו לברא בריות יפות שלא מזווג המין כמו שנודע בספרי הטבע שאין הדבר נמנע רשאים לעשות שכל שהוא טבעי אינו בכלל הכשוף ודומה לזה שיש בו משום רפואה אין בו משום דרכי האמורי כמו שיתבאר במקומו Anything which is done via a natural act is not ...


6

The Challenge of Creation by R. Natan Slifkin Torah, Chazal, and Science by R. Moshe Meiselman These two books contain very different approaches; in fact, the latter may be considered largely a rebuttal to the former. Between the two of them, you should be able to cover the main approaches.


6

Some of the disagreements in earlier answers seem to stem from different understandings of peer review. From the definition stated in the question, it seems totally reasonable to think of disagreements in the mishna and gemarah, or in the rishonim, achronim, and later works, as constituting peer review. Those who disagree are typically "people with similar ...


6

Rav Menachem Kasher wrote the first sections of his האדם על הירח in response to this event. Throughout the work he discusses the moon landing from hashkafic and halachic perspectives.


5

In my Mikraos Gedolos, I see the following quote (it's in his commentary to I:1:4): שם נטל חלק שליש במזרחי והוא אפריקי. וחם ויפת חלקו המערבי לשנים: חם נטל חלק הדרומי והוא אזיע, ויפת הצפוני והוא איראפיא. וכל השמות שנכתבו כאן הוא שם מדינות: גומר נטל קרוב לקוטב הצפוני, ומגוג אחריו, וכן כולם. וכוש קרוב לקוטב הדרומי, ומצרים אחריו... Nowhere does he say that ...


4

The ספר החינוך / Sefer Hachinuch / Book of the Initiation (Wikipedia article, Sefaria text) includes scientific rationales for many commands. Here's an example.


4

Indeed, Ralbag in his commentary there rejects the straightforward understanding of this miracle. For such a miracle to occur, nature would be changed in ways surpassing any of the miracles performed even by Moses whom no miracle-performer can actually surpass. In fact, for Hezekiah to even ask for such a miracle would be utterly foolish, which, based on ...


4

Yerushalmi Eruvin 33a: כמה יגעו נביאים הראשונים לעשות שער המזרחי שתהא החמה מצמצמת בו באחד בתקופת טבת ובאחד בתקופת תמוז. How much effort the early prophets put in to make the eastern gate [of the Har Habayis] such that the sun would shine exactly through it on the first day of the winter season and the first day of the summer season. See also Bavli ...


4

The Lubavitcher Rebbe's reaction from Chabad.org: Yes, the human being has performed something magnificent. There is much in which to take pride. But does that make us so large as to displace G‑d? Just the opposite! We only know the greatness of the Creator from the greatness of His creations. Now that we see He has created a being that is capable of ...


4

Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetsky and the Moon landing אמת ליעקב פרשת בראשית ודברי רמב"ן אלה הם שעמדו לי בשעה שראינו איך שבני אדם יורדים מעל המטוס ע"י סולם על גלגל הלבנה, וחשבתי בלבי מה יענה כעת הרמב"ם ז"ל שכתב שהלבנה היא בעלת צורה רוחנית, והרהרתי בלבי שכעת נצחה הקבלה את הפיליסופיא, ונחמתי את עצמי בדברי רמב"ן אלו. אבל כפי שאנחנו מתייחסים לדברי הראשונים ...


3

Here is a list of roughly 6 approaches in Jewish Thought to the question of scientific theories of origin (Big Bang Theory, Inflation, Geology, Evolution, etc...) and the Torah's depiction of creation. I am certain there are others I haven't encountered. 1) Rejection of scientific conclusions. Theories change over time. Rather than worry about a ...


3

Although his commentary to Chumash is not such a halachic source, Rav David Zvi Hoffman discusses this in his commentary to Shemot 22:17. Somewhat along the lines of Sabbahillel, according to my read, he seems to understand that it depends on the understanding of the performer and viewers. If it is understood and presented in a scientific way, it is not ...


3

I could point you to Shabbos 88b below, but please clarify if you are asking about what occurred prior to 974 generations before the creation of the world. ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי בשעה שעלה משה למרום אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם מה לילוד אשה בינינו אמר להן לקבל תורה בא אמרו לפניו חמודה גנוזה שגנוזה לך תשע מאות ושבעים וארבעה דורות ...


3

God did not create the earth spherical. God created matter and the law of gravity. That law states that each part of a blob of matter wants to go to the center of gravity of the whole blob. Over time, every bit of matter inches its way towards that center of gravity. The only shape that allows all the mass to come as close as possible to the center of ...


3

Immortality, Resurrection and the Age of the Universe: A Kabbalistic View by Rabbi Kaplan discusss many of these topics. See the table of contents: The age of the universe Longevity and immortality in Judaic sources On the resurrection Astrology: stars and angles Male and female


3

Just being published in the Talmud is a form of Peer Review. Not everything that Rabbi Akiva ever said has been written & published, only the things that his peers felt were valuable. And everyone who publishes a Sefer gets an Haskamah / approbation from their mentors & peers. Jews have been practicing peer review for millennia.


3

More than 50% of mishnayos have multiple tanaim disagreeing. That's peer review. R' Meir says something, R' Yehuda reviews it and says something else. When nobody disagrees explicitly, the assumption is they reviewed it and agreed (הלכה כסתם משנה). It's exactly the same in the Gemara.


3

As reported here R Shlomo Goren proposed to change the text of kiddush levana, the monthly blessing on the moon's renewal the answer began to emerge within hours of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing [...], the word came from Israel where Gen. [R] Shlomo Goren, the Armed Forces’ Chief Chaplain, issued instructions about a change in the prayer for ...


2

No, the Torah Codes have no merit. There are two core issues: 1) Statistical Improbability - On the surface it does seem to be highly improbable to find hidden "codes" through the use of Equidistant Letter Sequencing" (ELS). The issues is that these same "miraculous finds" have been duplicated using Moby Dick. 2) ELS Coding only works if the text is 100% ...


2

I know of a number of approaches to evolution vs creation in Jewish thought. As far as I can tell, it seems that an insistence on the Torah giving literal history with it being roughly 5,769 years since ex nihilo, became more popular after the scientific challenges of the past two centuries, not less. As though we dug in our heels in the face of so many ...


2

There are no halachik issues with this. The Chortkov Shul in Manchester, UK is being built with a Mikva on the upper floor.


2

I think this is another Rabbinical source which promotes the idea of a flat earth: The Holy One, blessed be He, raised up all the waters of creation and set half of them in the firmament and half in the Ocean; it is surprising! It is thus written: The river of God is full of water. The firmament is similar to a pool [reservoir] and above the pool is a ...


2

The question is based on a false premise. You seem to understand that 'the Whole Torah' requires a specific knowledge and detailed understanding of every potential application. This is incorrect. "Knowing all the Torah" (in relevance to Halacha) means knowing and understanding all the laws and intricacies, which can then be applied to any hypothetical ...


2

This question is based on a misunderstanding of the gemara. The assertion here isn't that there is a 6-hour time difference between Eretz Yisrael and Bavel. Rather, the case refers back to the previous discussion in the gemara about determining whether the molad occurred before or after midday. First, some background. As we've already learned on this daf, ...


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