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11

I believe it is referring to Ha'amek Davar to Bereishit 7:23, although note that he ultimately rejects this view and believes that the fossils are of antediluvian creatures belonging to our "world", rather than from previous "worlds".


8

They are not created, they are formed by means of the natural laws from preexisting matter. This has nothing to do with yesh mai-ayin (creation from nothing) which occurred at the very beginning. We usually talk of star formation in terms of the gas mass that is converted into stars each year. Indeed as Rashi and others point out on Bereishis 1:14 Yesh ...


7

The Challenge of Creation by R. Natan Slifkin Torah, Chazal, and Science by R. Moshe Meiselman These two books contain very different approaches; in fact, the latter may be considered largely a rebuttal to the former. Between the two of them, you should be able to cover the main approaches.


6

Sanhedrin 98a ואמר רבי אבא אין לך קץ מגולה מזה שנאמר (יחזקאל לו, ח) ואתם הרי ישראל ענפכם תתנו ופריכם תשאו לעמי ישראל וגו'‏ And Rabbi Abba says: You have no more explicit manifestation of the end of days than this following phenomenon, as it is stated: “But you, mountains of Israel, you shall give your branches, and yield your fruit to My people ...


6

Some of the disagreements in earlier answers seem to stem from different understandings of peer review. From the definition stated in the question, it seems totally reasonable to think of disagreements in the mishna and gemarah, or in the rishonim, achronim, and later works, as constituting peer review. Those who disagree are typically "people with similar ...


6

Rav Menachem Kasher wrote the first sections of his האדם על הירח in response to this event. Throughout the work he discusses the moon landing from hashkafic and halachic perspectives.


5

Immortality, Resurrection and the Age of the Universe: A Kabbalistic View by Rabbi Kaplan discusss many of these topics. See the table of contents: The age of the universe Longevity and immortality in Judaic sources On the resurrection Astrology: stars and angles Male and female


4

Here are 3 books not already mentioned which are highly relevant and which I appreciated Gerald Schroeder: The Science of God: The Convergence of Scientific and Biblical Wisdom (2009) which "demonstrates the surprising parallels between a variety of Biblical teachings and the findings of biochemists, paleontologists, astrophysicists, and quantum physicists. ...


4

The Lubavitcher Rebbe's reaction from Chabad.org: Yes, the human being has performed something magnificent. There is much in which to take pride. But does that make us so large as to displace G‑d? Just the opposite! We only know the greatness of the Creator from the greatness of His creations. Now that we see He has created a being that is capable of ...


4

Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetsky and the Moon landing אמת ליעקב פרשת בראשית ודברי רמב"ן אלה הם שעמדו לי בשעה שראינו איך שבני אדם יורדים מעל המטוס ע"י סולם על גלגל הלבנה, וחשבתי בלבי מה יענה כעת הרמב"ם ז"ל שכתב שהלבנה היא בעלת צורה רוחנית, והרהרתי בלבי שכעת נצחה הקבלה את הפיליסופיא, ונחמתי את עצמי בדברי רמב"ן אלו. אבל כפי שאנחנו מתייחסים לדברי הראשונים ...


3

More than 50% of mishnayos have multiple tanaim disagreeing. That's peer review. R' Meir says something, R' Yehuda reviews it and says something else. When nobody disagrees explicitly, the assumption is they reviewed it and agreed (הלכה כסתם משנה). It's exactly the same in the Gemara.


3

Just being published in the Talmud is a form of Peer Review. Not everything that Rabbi Akiva ever said has been written & published, only the things that his peers felt were valuable. And everyone who publishes a Sefer gets an Haskamah / approbation from their mentors & peers. Jews have been practicing peer review for millennia.


3

I could point you to Shabbos 88b below, but please clarify if you are asking about what occurred prior to 974 generations before the creation of the world. ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי בשעה שעלה משה למרום אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם מה לילוד אשה בינינו אמר להן לקבל תורה בא אמרו לפניו חמודה גנוזה שגנוזה לך תשע מאות ושבעים וארבעה דורות ...


3

God did not create the earth spherical. God created matter and the law of gravity. That law states that each part of a blob of matter wants to go to the center of gravity of the whole blob. Over time, every bit of matter inches its way towards that center of gravity. The only shape that allows all the mass to come as close as possible to the center of ...


3

A very famous tradition, stats that Hagr"a said: מי שחסר לו יד אחת בחכמות העולם, חסרות לו עשר ידות בחכמת התורה One who miss one measure (of understanding of) the world's science, is missing ten measures (of understanding of) Tora. You can google this parse, it's everywhere.


3

No, the Torah Codes have no merit. There are two core issues: 1) Statistical Improbability - On the surface it does seem to be highly improbable to find hidden "codes" through the use of Equidistant Letter Sequencing" (ELS). The issues is that these same "miraculous finds" have been duplicated using Moby Dick. 2) ELS Coding only works if the text is 100% ...


3

As reported here R Shlomo Goren proposed to change the text of kiddush levana, the monthly blessing on the moon's renewal the answer began to emerge within hours of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing [...], the word came from Israel where Gen. [R] Shlomo Goren, the Armed Forces’ Chief Chaplain, issued instructions about a change in the prayer for ...


3

I'm not sure this quite answers your question, but Radvaz (3:584 (1012)) does seem to question Rashbam's anatomical facts, and says something that might be considered answer: ועוד ראיתי כי הסימנים שוכבין זה על זה ולא ידעתי אם סימני אדם נשתנה Depending on how you read this, he could be entertaining the possibility that the anatomical facts had changed ...


2

No. The Torah codes and any books about them are fruitless as the Torah text has been changed by many translations. True, that these are small variations and only instances where one letter might have been changed. But by default, if just one letter is changed, it messes with the entire process and forfeits any codes which might have otherwise been derived. ...


2

I think this is another Rabbinical source which promotes the idea of a flat earth: The Holy One, blessed be He, raised up all the waters of creation and set half of them in the firmament and half in the Ocean; it is surprising! It is thus written: The river of God is full of water. The firmament is similar to a pool [reservoir] and above the pool is a ...


2

R. Yisrael Lipschitz writes the following in his introduction to Seder Moed: הכלל העולה דבין ציצית ובין בגדי כהונה א״צ חלזון דוקא אבל צריך בשניהן שיהיה מראה (היממעלבלויא) שאינו משתנה מיפיו ע״י בדיקה שהזכיר הש״ס The principle that emerges is that both by tzitzit and by the priestly vestments it is not necessary to specifically use a chilazon. But it is ...


2

I have several suggestions. This is a Gzeira. Which means it does not actually add heat. But if these are allowed, someone may end up using live coals. If the sun was baking any of these items like sand or salt all day long, the sand and salt are indeed hotter than the pot of food and can cook the food by adding heat. Thanks Josh


2

I like to point out that the Gemara Sotah 4b gives you multiple options on this: א"ר יצחק בר <רב> יוסף א"ר יוחנן כל אחד ואחד בעצמו שיער והאיכא בן עזאי דלא נסיב איבעית אימא נסיב ופירש הוה ואיבעית אימא מרביה שמיע ליה ואיבעית אימא (תהילים כה) סוד ה' ליראיו Several rabbis were discussing the minimum time that if a woman was secluded with a man, it's ...


2

This is one of the topics that one should avoid discussing. See Mishna Chagiga 2:1, 11b in the Talmud: אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁנַיִם. וְלֹא בַמֶּרְכָּבָה בְּיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּל הַמִּסְתַּכֵּל בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים, רָאוּי לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא בָּא לָעוֹלָם,...


2

I believe it is fair to suggest, though I naturally cannot provide a "source", that if there where "sources that easily disprove evolution" then someone who is introduced to the controversy would likely have encountered them because opponents of evolution would give preference to such arguments. Furthermore, I am not sure it is reasonable to presume that a ...


2

What I recall reading in many places is the word "heart", not "center". The Holy of Holies is the "heart" of the Temple (not its center). The Temple is the heart of Jerusalem (not its center), Jerusalem is the heart of Israel, Israel is the heart of the Earth, etc. Note that your "heart" is not in the "center" of your body. Neither is your mind. At any ...


1

Some genetic alternation is allowed (adviced, even), for avoiding unwanted traits: בכורות מה ב אמר ר"ל גבוה לא ישא גבוהית שמא יצא מהן תורן ננס לא ישא ננסת שמא יצא מהם אצבעי לבן לא ישא לבנה שמא יצא מהם בוהק שחור לא ישא שחורה שמא יצא מהן טפוח Bechorot 45:b Reish Lakish said: Tall man shouldn't marry tall woman, for their child might be "flagpole" ...


1

Peer-review as we know it today was quite impossible in the past. Also in science is is very recent. For Halachic decisions, the basic "peer-review" in Judaism is the Beis Din, and in the past all Rabbis who wrote responsa either wrote them as part of sitting in a Beis Din, or expected them to be approved by a responsible Beis Din. For theoretical ...


1

There is a comprehensive compendium of the Rebbe’s discussions on science topics as related to the Torah: Mind over Matter: The Lubavitcher Rebbe on Science, Technology, and Medicine, compiled by Rabbi Joseph Ginsburg and Professor Herman Branover, edited and translated by Arnie Gotfryd, Ph.D. (Jerusalem: Shamir, 2003).


1

The halachic issue behind broiling liver is the prohibition to eat blood (Vayikra 17:10). "Since the liver contains much blood, it therefore not permissible to cook it even after salting it" (quote from SA YD 73:1, see also here). Maybe less well known is the fact that the heart also cannot be eaten after only being salted and cooked. Blood first needs to ...


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