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11

I believe it is referring to Ha'amek Davar to Bereishit 7:23, although note that he ultimately rejects this view and believes that the fossils are of antediluvian creatures belonging to our "world", rather than from previous "worlds".


8

They are not created, they are formed by means of the natural laws from preexisting matter. This has nothing to do with yesh mai-ayin (creation from nothing) which occurred at the very beginning. We usually talk of star formation in terms of the gas mass that is converted into stars each year. Indeed as Rashi and others point out on Bereishis 1:14 Yesh ...


6

Some of the disagreements in earlier answers seem to stem from different understandings of peer review. From the definition stated in the question, it seems totally reasonable to think of disagreements in the mishna and gemarah, or in the rishonim, achronim, and later works, as constituting peer review. Those who disagree are typically "people with similar ...


6

Rav Menachem Kasher wrote the first sections of his האדם על הירח in response to this event. Throughout the work he discusses the moon landing from hashkafic and halachic perspectives.


5

Rambam is based on Nega’im 12:2, which states (based on Vayikra 14:45) that a house needs to be composed of stone, wood and earth in order to contract tzara’at impurity, and that marble does not count. Tiferet Yisrael in Bo’az 3 explains that marble is never referred to as simply “stone” but instead “stones of marble”.


4

Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetsky and the Moon landing אמת ליעקב פרשת בראשית ודברי רמב"ן אלה הם שעמדו לי בשעה שראינו איך שבני אדם יורדים מעל המטוס ע"י סולם על גלגל הלבנה, וחשבתי בלבי מה יענה כעת הרמב"ם ז"ל שכתב שהלבנה היא בעלת צורה רוחנית, והרהרתי בלבי שכעת נצחה הקבלה את הפיליסופיא, ונחמתי את עצמי בדברי רמב"ן אלו. אבל כפי שאנחנו מתייחסים לדברי הראשונים ...


4

The Lubavitcher Rebbe's reaction from Chabad.org: Yes, the human being has performed something magnificent. There is much in which to take pride. But does that make us so large as to displace G‑d? Just the opposite! We only know the greatness of the Creator from the greatness of His creations. Now that we see He has created a being that is capable of ...


3

This is a purely speculative idea. But it's worth considering since you are looking for a "reason" behind the mitzvah and not a discussion of the halacha itself. Why is marble not considered like other stones. Rambam distinguishes in this halacha between 2 categories, 1) "stones" (אבן) together with soil and wood and 2) "bricks"...


3

As reported here R Shlomo Goren proposed to change the text of kiddush levana, the monthly blessing on the moon's renewal the answer began to emerge within hours of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing [...], the word came from Israel where Gen. [R] Shlomo Goren, the Armed Forces’ Chief Chaplain, issued instructions about a change in the prayer for ...


3

I'm not sure this quite answers your question, but Radvaz (3:584 (1012)) does seem to question Rashbam's anatomical facts, and says something that might be considered an answer: ועוד ראיתי כי הסימנים שוכבין זה על זה ולא ידעתי אם סימני אדם נשתנה Depending on how you read this, he could be entertaining the possibility that the anatomical facts had changed ...


3

More than 50% of mishnayos have multiple tanaim disagreeing. That's peer review. R' Meir says something, R' Yehuda reviews it and says something else. When nobody disagrees explicitly, the assumption is they reviewed it and agreed (הלכה כסתם משנה). It's exactly the same in the Gemara.


3

Just being published in the Talmud is a form of Peer Review. Not everything that Rabbi Akiva ever said has been written & published, only the things that his peers felt were valuable. And everyone who publishes a Sefer gets an Haskamah / approbation from their mentors & peers. Jews have been practicing peer review for millennia.


3

A very famous tradition, stats that Hagr"a said: מי שחסר לו יד אחת בחכמות העולם, חסרות לו עשר ידות בחכמת התורה One who miss one measure (of understanding of) the world's science, is missing ten measures (of understanding of) Tora. You can google this parse, it's everywhere.


3

No, the Torah Codes have no merit. There are two core issues: 1) Statistical Improbability - On the surface it does seem to be highly improbable to find hidden "codes" through the use of Equidistant Letter Sequencing" (ELS). The issues is that these same "miraculous finds" have been duplicated using Moby Dick. 2) ELS Coding only works if the text is 100% ...


2

No. The Torah codes and any books about them are fruitless as the Torah text has been changed by many translations. True, that these are small variations and only instances where one letter might have been changed. But by default, if just one letter is changed, it messes with the entire process and forfeits any codes which might have otherwise been derived. ...


2

R. Yisrael Lipschitz writes the following in his introduction to Seder Moed: הכלל העולה דבין ציצית ובין בגדי כהונה א״צ חלזון דוקא אבל צריך בשניהן שיהיה מראה (היממעלבלויא) שאינו משתנה מיפיו ע״י בדיקה שהזכיר הש״ס The principle that emerges is that both by tzitzit and by the priestly vestments it is not necessary to specifically use a chilazon. But it is ...


2

I have several suggestions. This is a Gzeira. Which means it does not actually add heat. But if these are allowed, someone may end up using live coals. If the sun was baking any of these items like sand or salt all day long, the sand and salt are indeed hotter than the pot of food and can cook the food by adding heat. Thanks Josh


1

The general theme of AZ 54b-55a is “If Hashem hates idolatry, why doesn’t He just get rid of it?” One particular statement that’s relevant to the question at hand (my translation): א"ל רבא בר רב יצחק לרב יהודה האיכא בית עבודת כוכבים באתרין דכי מצטריך עלמא למטרא מתחזי להו בחלמא ואמר להו שחטו לי גברא ואייתי מטרא שחטו לה גברא ואתי מטרא א"ל השתא אי הוי שכיבנא ...


1

Some genetic alternation is allowed (adviced, even), for avoiding unwanted traits: בכורות מה ב אמר ר"ל גבוה לא ישא גבוהית שמא יצא מהן תורן ננס לא ישא ננסת שמא יצא מהם אצבעי לבן לא ישא לבנה שמא יצא מהם בוהק שחור לא ישא שחורה שמא יצא מהן טפוח Bechorot 45:b Reish Lakish said: Tall man shouldn't marry tall woman, for their child might be "flagpole" ...


1

Peer-review as we know it today was quite impossible in the past. Also in science is is very recent. For Halachic decisions, the basic "peer-review" in Judaism is the Beis Din, and in the past all Rabbis who wrote responsa either wrote them as part of sitting in a Beis Din, or expected them to be approved by a responsible Beis Din. For theoretical ...


1

My Rav in a prominent Toronto Lubavitch shul mentions the importance of understanding science in understanding Halacha. He answered me because of my need to convince a group of 12-14 Orthodox boys’ schools of the validity of my science classes that I teach. The Rav gives examples of how shabbos laws for recent inventions require an understanding of science, ...


1

The mishna is not referring to reading a lengthy text. It is referring to reading Tanach and reciting Mishnah. We must remember that in the time of the mishna it was forbidden to write down the mishna. To review a mishna, or to analyze one, a person would have to first recite the mishna from memory. To remember the mishna, scholars would reveiw it ...


1

This seems to be a dispute between Rashi and Rambam. According to Rashi (Sanhedrin 72b DH Yatza Rosho), the fetus is not considered a separate entity. יצא ראשו - באשה המקשה לילד ומסוכנת וקתני רישא החיה פושטת ידה וחותכתו ומוציאתו לאברים דכל זמן שלא יצא לאויר העולם לאו נפש הוא וניתן להורגו ולהציל את אמו אבל יצא ראשו אין נוגעים בו להורגו דהוה ליה כילוד ואין ...


1

One interesting point. The Tiferes Yisrael points out in his introduction to Seder Moed regarding the Bigdei Kehuna (where some clothes require Techeiles): goes even further and questions the need for chilazon at all. He sees no reason to differentiate the techeiles of tzitzis from the techeiles of the priestly garments since the Torah uses the same word ...


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