Questions tagged [sanhedrin]

Actions and internal workings of the high religious court during Temple, Mishnaic, and Talmudic times.

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39 views

Which 5 Sanhedrin judges would come?

Regarding the Eglah Arufah, 5 Sanhedrin members come and kill a cow by a stream. Which 5 Sanhedrin members would those be?
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אנשי כנסת הגדולה and סנהדרין relationship

What is the relationship between the אנשי כנסת הגדולה and the Sanhedrin? Is the 70 of the Sanhedrin always included in the 120 of the כנסת הגדולה? In the time both existed what was the division of ...
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How come that nobody could oppose to R' Gamliel in Halachah but could boot him promptly as the President?

I'm trying to understand the mechanics of the Jewish Presidency as presented in Berakhot.28a. In the story R"G asks if there is anybody who could object to him in a Halachic issue, and nobody ...
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Selection of pupils under R' Gamliel in Berakhot 28a

"תָּנָא אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, סִלְּקוּהוּ לְשׁוֹמֵר הַפֶּתַח וְנִתְּנָה לָהֶם רְשׁוּת לַתַּלְמִידִים לִיכָּנֵס. שֶׁהָיָה רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מַכְרִיז וְאוֹמֵר: כׇּל תַּלְמִיד שֶׁאֵין תּוֹכוֹ כְּבָרוֹ, ...
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Who accepted new great sanhedrin judges?

If for any reason, a judge of the 72 great sanhedrin left the great sanhedrin, who would be the one to appoint a new one?
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Why did the model of Rabbinic Pairs (Zugot) emerge and why was it abolished?

In What was the position of Av Beis Din vs Nassi in Rabbinic Pairs? I asked about the description of the two positions in the Sanhedrin. However, why did this model suddenly emerge after almost 1500 ...
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What was the position of Av Beis Din vs Nassi in Rabbinic Pairs?

Traditionally, from Moses and on there was always only one head of the Sanhedrin, the president, the prince, the king, the Supreme Judge, Av Beis Din, etc. No other members or titles or names are ever ...
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Are there any examples of “par ha'elem davar” in Tanakh or Talmud?

In Lev. 4:13-15, we learn If it is the whole community of Israel that has erred and the matter escapes the notice of the congregation, so that they do any of the things which by the LORD’s ...
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Rabbi Moshe Feinstein member of Sanhedrin

On page 198 of "Reb Moshe" published by Artscroll, it is told of Reb Moshe that he "needed a cardiac pacemaker inserted in his chest....Reb Moshe said, 'I know that I am not worthy to ...
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Declare a leap year due to coronavirus?

Today (23 March 2020) Israel's Supreme Court rejected a petition to declare this year a leap year so Pessah can be postponed for a month, and the seders don't have to occur during a lockdown (...
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Does the nascent Sanhedrin in Israel sanctify the new moon with witnesses?

In 2004, a group of rabbis in Israel attempted to begin the process of re-establishing the Sanhedrin using the Rambam's method of universal consensus to re-establish the line of semikha. Rabbi Moshe ...
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Rabbinical knowledge of idolatry

I heard once that the Sanhedrin had to know exactly what the different forms of idolatry were and how they worked in order to correctly judge cases of avodah zara brought before them. Does anyone know ...
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Why doesn't the Talmud consider the possibility that the later court was greater in wisdom and number?

In discussing the source that Megillat Esther may be read on the 11th, 12th, or 13th of Adar in addition to the 14th and 15th of Adar, the Talmud (Megillah 2a) has the following exchange: What we ...
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A few questions related to the Knesset Hagdolah and the Sanhedrin

Wikipedia says the Great Assembly was established in 410 BCE, and I'm wondering if that's what the masorah teaches. Wikipedia also mentions that Sanhedrin began to form around 57-55 BCE, and I'm also ...
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Was Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai a priest? And was he Nasi of a sanhedrin?

Was Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai a priest? And was he Nasi of a sanhedrin? I ask, because I read here that he was nasi of the sanhedrin from the years 70-80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanhedrin ...
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Is a gentile permitted to learn the original Hebrew of the Torah?

I've been reading the Divine Code by Rabbi Moshe Weiner and came across this in Part I 5:2 note. 91 "...(1) It is also prohibited for a Jew to teach Torah to gentiles in the canonised Hebrew or ...
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How will the next Sanhedrin function if we lost the original Semicha?

Many functions of the Sanhedrin require the group of rabbis descended from an unbroken chain of Semicha from the time of Moshe. For example I read in Eliyahu Ki Tov's Sefer Hatoda'ah that ...
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Did Sadducees contribute to halacha? [duplicate]

We know that Sadducees served on the Sanhedrin and even became high priests. [Yoma 19b] They did not believe in the afterlife or the resurrection of the dead, but this does not mean their ...
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Considerations for impeachment of the Nassi of Sanhedrin

While cynically coincidental, my business is exclusively with the Sugya of the [temporary] impeachment of Rabban Gamliel in his Maariv Chova argument with R' Yahoshua (Brochos 27b). אמרי עד כמה ...
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Considerations for electing the Nassi - theoretical vs practical?

In theory Rambam Hilchot Sanhedrin 1.3 teaches us: הַגָּדוֹל בְּחָכְמָה שֶׁבְּכֻלָּן מוֹשִׁיבִין אוֹתוֹ רֹאשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן וְהוּא רֹאשׁ הַיְשִׁיבָה וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ הַחֲכָמִים נָשִׂיא בְּכָל ...
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Order of promotion of Sanhedrin judges

There were three Sanhedrins on the Temple Mt: - The Great: 71 members and 3 lines of 23 students for filling in or replacing the judges (see Sanhedrin 37a) and - Two Lesser: 23 members each, with ...
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If “not in Heaven”, can Sanhedrin disregard or contradict a prophet?

It is a Mitzvah to listen to a prophet (non-capital) and it is a Mitzvah to listen to the Sanhedrin (capital). While it's accepted that a prophet can't establish new Halochos, he can command on ...
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Examples of a decision ruled by voting of Sanhedrin in the Talmud

If I understand correctly the Peshat of the Torah (Deut 17), when a Machlokes raises, there's a simple and Kosher way of resolving it - gathering the High Court and voting on it and, of course, ...
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Examples of a functioning Sanhedrin in the Talmud

We find many references in the Talmud to what could be perceived as a Sanhedrin, like Chachamim or Beis-Din, or that Hillel and his descendants were the Nessi'im (of a Sanhedrin presumably), but I don'...
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Tanaim in the Sanhedrin

Do we know by name any Tanainm that actually sat at great Sanhedrin? (71 sages) I know Shimon "H'tzadik" that were in the Keneset Hagdola, but it's not the same.
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What direction did the Great Sanhedrin face?

In the standard scheme of the Temple and the Great Sanhedrin, taking the fact that they sat in an arc, what direction did they face - South (Altar), East (Ezrat Nashim), West(K"K) or North (wall)? I'...
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Why does a small sanhedrin have 23 judges rather than 21?

Sanhedrin 1:6 explains the size of the small sanhedrin, but I'm having trouble following the reasoning. It says (my notes in brackets): From where do we learn that the little Sanhedrin should be ...
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Can a Judge Issue a Ruling After his Death?

In a recent decision (No. 18-272, Yovino v. Rizo, decided February 25, 2019 Per Curiam, properly cited as 586 U. S. ___ (2019)), the United States Supreme Court (SCOTUS) dealt with the matter of a ...
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Why representatives were sent to spy and not the elders?

What was the logic of sending tribes' representatives and not simply [from the] the elders, isn't it what the elders were elected for - to decide for the masses? In other words, even if some of them ...
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Was the bat kol right?

In Bava Metzia 59b, the rabbis are discussing a matter of halacha, and at some point a Voice from Heaven (bat kol) interjects an opinion. The rabbis reply that the Torah is out of God's hands (they ...
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Where did the 70 elders (High Sanhedrin) sit in the wilderness?

All the depictions of the tribal camps around the Mishkan in the desert show that the tribe of Levi was surrounding it and Israel were not allowed in there. I don't recall a reference to a specific ...
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Why Poskim don't work and write in groups?

At any given moment there are several leading (and hundreds of secondary) Rabbis and Poskim. Each one running his own Yeshivah, writing his books and issuing his own Psakim. I understood that the ...
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How can the Sanhedrin ever err?

On the one hand we know that if a Sanhedrin issued an erroneous decision (which was acted upon) they must bring a sacrifice (Vayikra 4:13). On the other, we have the concept of "lo bashamayim hi" (...
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Is there a limit to the number of consecutive leap years?

The Rambam in Hilchot Kiddush Hachodesh 4:5 (Thanks @DonielF) states that Sanhedrin was allowed to declare a leap year not just based on "seasonal alignment' (I.e. 16 Nissan should be after the spring ...
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Where was the Sanhedrin in the Purim story?

I'm trying to understand the "chain of command" in the story of Megillat Ester, and I see Ester as a prophetess, Mordechai as a prophet and a sage but what's missing is the 70 elders - the Sanhedrin. ...
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How to understand Hilchot Mamrim 3?

In Hilchot Mamrim 3a, it states: מי שאינו מאמין בתורה שבעל פה, אינו זקן ממרא האמור בתורה, אלא הרי הוא בכלל המינים, ומיתתו ביד כל אדם. [ב] מאחר שנתפרסם שהוא כופר בתורה שבעל פה--מורידין ולא מעלין, ...
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How did the Beis Din have the authority to relax the rules of Muktza?

Shulchan Aruch HaRav (O.C. 310:16) lays out the general history of the prohibition of Mukza (Based on Shabbos 123b): בימי נחמיה בן חכליה שהיו העם מזלזלים באיסורי שבת כמ"ש בימים ההם ראיתי ביהודה ...