Questions tagged [sanhedrin]

Actions and internal workings of the high religious court during Temple, Mishnaic, and Talmudic times.

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Talmud Yerushalmi vs Bavli

We all know that only a Sanhedrin can vote conclusively on a halakha for the entire nation. Since the Sanhedrin was dismantled, the next best option was to listening to the hachamim of your locale. ...
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An ancient text arguing that an assembly with no opposition should be dissolved

In Benjamin Aryeh Hakohen Weiss's "Even Yekarah” (Choshen Mishpat, sec. 20) it refers to an ancient gentile text which specifies that when the state government has no minority/opposition members, ...
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Did the Battle of Gog Umagog happen already?

I’ve been reading a lot of Ezekiel Chapter 38 and on with Talmud Sanhedrin 97a and on and it seems from there that the order of events before the coming of mashiach need to happen in order for ...
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What is "the Halachic State"?

There is a term called מְדִינַת הֲלָכָה - Halachic State. On Wikipedia (not a reliable source, but could not find anything else), it says: A Halachic State is a Jewish state that endorses Judaism in ...
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Will the Moshiach's Beit Din be "greater" than previous Batei Din? [duplicate]

The Gemara (Avodah Zarah 36a) says that a Beis Din does not have the power to overrule a Takkanah of a previous Beit Din. It is generally understood that earlier Batei Din are superior to later ones (...
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Why in a capital case of murder in beis din if all judges find the defendant guilty, is the defendent set free? [duplicate]

Why in a capital case of murder if all the judges find the defendent guilty , he is set free?
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Did Sanhedrin use Oral law along with Written Law

Did Sanhedrin use Oral law along with Written Law in their decisions?
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What's the source for unanimous decision of the Sanhedrin?

I often hear that if the Sanhedrin were to vote unanimously to condemn an accused then the verdict is that he goes free. What is the original source for this?
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Which Scripture is being talked about in: He who destroys one soul of a human being, the Scripture considers him as if he should destroy a whole world

I have read in Tractate Sanhedrin: Chapter 4: Therefore the man was created singly, to teach that he who destroys one soul of a human being, the Scripture considers him as if he should destroy a ...
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Based on Sanhedrin 39a:13 & Rashi commentary on Ezekiel 4:4, how does immobility (motionlessness) atone/cleanse national sins?

Was Yechezkel 4:4 method of Israel's atonement simply : immobility? Sanhedrin 39a:13 The Holy One, Blessed be He, afflicts Ezekiel in order to cleanse the sins of the Jewish people. God instructed ...
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Did Hillel get rid of the year of Jubilee?

I came across this post on 4chan: I do not ordinarily put much stock into what Christians assert about the pharisaic order of the time, given that "Pharisee" is usually just a contextless ...
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Warning/hasrah nowadays

If 2 witnesses give a warning to someone not to transgress an aveira, I.e. “don’t eat that dead animal or you will get lashes,” and the man eats it anyway. If the Bais Hamikdash and Sanhedrin are ...
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The "Nascent Sanhedrin" - what is the position of gedolim on it?

There has been an attempt to re-establish the Sanhendrin, starting around 2004. http://www.thesanhedrin.org/en/index.php/The_Re-established_Jewish_Sanhedrin https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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New Sanhedrin - what will it do?

According to the Rambam in Hilchos Mamarim 1 and 2, a Sanhedrin has enormous power. Roughly speaking, it oversees a) oral traditions, b) rabbinical enactments, and c) drashos: derivations using the י&...
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Why was the Sanhedrin so opposed to execution?

Why was the Sanhedrin opposed to using the death penalty most times?
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Why aren't all judicial powers stripped, why only capital punishment?

Why is capital punishment only adjudicated when the Temple is standing? If it is because the Sanhedrin needs to convene at the designated location described in Devarim 17:8, then wouldn't the rest of ...
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Judaism position on Mishmeret HaTzniut

What is the Judaism's position on establishing a Va'ad Mishmeret HaTzniut, a private organisation which enforces tzniut rules in a specific community/town. At times they may use intimidation or ...
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When the Messiah comes, will Sanhedrin be able to overturn Gezairos (Rabbinic decrees) that are not relevant today?

I've heard throughout my life that even if a decree is not applicable today, we still keep it as part of Halacha. One example that comes to mind (not sure if it's apropos here) is keeping two days of ...
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Legitimacy of rulings accepted through spontaneous rabbinic gatherings

The Torah prescribes settling the law in a very special place: "If a case is too baffling for you to decide, be it controversy over homicide, civil law, or assault—matters of dispute in your ...
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אנשי כנסת הגדולה and סנהדרין relationship

What is the relationship between the אנשי כנסת הגדולה and the Sanhedrin? Is the 70 of the Sanhedrin always included in the 120 of the כנסת הגדולה? In the time both existed what was the division of ...
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How come that nobody could oppose to R' Gamliel in Halachah but could boot him promptly as the President?

I'm trying to understand the mechanics of the Jewish Presidency as presented in Berakhot.28a. In the story R"G asks if there is anybody who could object to him in a Halachic issue, and nobody ...
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Selection of pupils under R' Gamliel in Berakhot 28a

"תָּנָא אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, סִלְּקוּהוּ לְשׁוֹמֵר הַפֶּתַח וְנִתְּנָה לָהֶם רְשׁוּת לַתַּלְמִידִים לִיכָּנֵס. שֶׁהָיָה רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מַכְרִיז וְאוֹמֵר: כׇּל תַּלְמִיד שֶׁאֵין תּוֹכוֹ כְּבָרוֹ, ...
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Who accepted new great sanhedrin judges?

If for any reason, a judge of the 72 great sanhedrin left the great sanhedrin, who would be the one to appoint a new one?
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Why did the model of Rabbinic Pairs (Zugot) emerge and why was it abolished?

In What was the position of Av Beis Din vs Nassi in Rabbinic Pairs? I asked about the description of the two positions in the Sanhedrin. However, why did this model suddenly emerge after almost 1500 ...
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What was the position of Av Beis Din vs Nassi in Rabbinic Pairs?

Traditionally, from Moses and on there was always only one head of the Sanhedrin, the president, the prince, the king, the Supreme Judge, Av Beis Din, etc. No other members or titles or names are ever ...
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Are there any examples of "par ha'elem davar" in Tanakh or Talmud?

In Lev. 4:13-15, we learn If it is the whole community of Israel that has erred and the matter escapes the notice of the congregation, so that they do any of the things which by the LORD’s ...
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Rabbi Moshe Feinstein member of Sanhedrin

On page 198 of "Reb Moshe" published by Artscroll, it is told of Reb Moshe that he "needed a cardiac pacemaker inserted in his chest....Reb Moshe said, 'I know that I am not worthy to ...
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Declare a leap year due to coronavirus?

Today (23 March 2020) Israel's Supreme Court rejected a petition to declare this year a leap year so Pessah can be postponed for a month, and the seders don't have to occur during a lockdown (...
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Does the nascent Sanhedrin in Israel sanctify the new moon with witnesses?

In 2004, a group of rabbis in Israel attempted to begin the process of re-establishing the Sanhedrin using the Rambam's method of universal consensus to re-establish the line of semikha. Rabbi Moshe ...
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Rabbinical knowledge of idolatry

I heard once that the Sanhedrin had to know exactly what the different forms of idolatry were and how they worked in order to correctly judge cases of avodah zara brought before them. Does anyone know ...
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Why doesn't the Talmud consider the possibility that the later court was greater in wisdom and number?

In discussing the source that Megillat Esther may be read on the 11th, 12th, or 13th of Adar in addition to the 14th and 15th of Adar, the Talmud (Megillah 2a) has the following exchange: What we ...
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A few questions related to the Knesset Hagdolah and the Sanhedrin [closed]

Wikipedia says the Great Assembly was established in 410 BCE, and I'm wondering if that's what the masorah teaches. Wikipedia also mentions that Sanhedrin began to form around 57-55 BCE, and I'm also ...
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Was Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai a priest? And was he Nasi of a sanhedrin?

Was Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai a priest? And was he Nasi of a sanhedrin? I ask, because I read here that he was nasi of the sanhedrin from the years 70-80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanhedrin ...
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Is a gentile permitted to learn the original Hebrew of the Torah?

I've been reading the Divine Code by Rabbi Moshe Weiner and came across this in Part I 5:2 note. 91 "...(1) It is also prohibited for a Jew to teach Torah to gentiles in the canonised Hebrew or ...
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How will the next Sanhedrin function if we lost the original Semicha?

Many functions of the Sanhedrin require the group of rabbis descended from an unbroken chain of Semicha from the time of Moshe. For example I read in Eliyahu Ki Tov's Sefer Hatoda'ah that ...
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Did Sadducees contribute to halacha? [duplicate]

We know that Sadducees served on the Sanhedrin and even became high priests. [Yoma 19b] They did not believe in the afterlife or the resurrection of the dead, but this does not mean their ...
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Considerations for impeachment of the Nassi of Sanhedrin

While cynically coincidental, my business is exclusively with the Sugya of the [temporary] impeachment of Rabban Gamliel in his Maariv Chova argument with R' Yahoshua (Brochos 27b). אמרי עד כמה ...
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Considerations for electing the Nassi - theoretical vs practical?

In theory Rambam Hilchot Sanhedrin 1.3 teaches us: הַגָּדוֹל בְּחָכְמָה שֶׁבְּכֻלָּן מוֹשִׁיבִין אוֹתוֹ רֹאשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן וְהוּא רֹאשׁ הַיְשִׁיבָה וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ הַחֲכָמִים נָשִׂיא בְּכָל ...
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Order of promotion of Sanhedrin judges

There were three Sanhedrins on the Temple Mt: - The Great: 71 members and 3 lines of 23 students for filling in or replacing the judges (see Sanhedrin 37a) and - Two Lesser: 23 members each, with ...
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If "not in Heaven", can Sanhedrin disregard or contradict a prophet?

It is a Mitzvah to listen to a prophet (non-capital) and it is a Mitzvah to listen to the Sanhedrin (capital). While it's accepted that a prophet can't establish new Halochos, he can command on ...
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Examples of a decision ruled by voting of Sanhedrin in the Talmud

If I understand correctly the Peshat of the Torah (Deut 17), when a Machlokes raises, there's a simple and Kosher way of resolving it - gathering the High Court and voting on it and, of course, ...
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Examples of a functioning Sanhedrin in the Talmud

We find many references in the Talmud to what could be perceived as a Sanhedrin, like Chachamim or Beis-Din, or that Hillel and his descendants were the Nessi'im (of a Sanhedrin presumably), but I don'...
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Tanaim in the Sanhedrin

Do we know by name any Tanainm that actually sat at great Sanhedrin? (71 sages) I know Shimon "H'tzadik" that were in the Keneset Hagdola, but it's not the same.
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What direction did the Great Sanhedrin face?

In the standard scheme of the Temple and the Great Sanhedrin, taking the fact that they sat in an arc, what direction did they face - South (Altar), East (Ezrat Nashim), West(K"K) or North (wall)? I'...
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Why does a small sanhedrin have 23 judges rather than 21?

Sanhedrin 1:6 explains the size of the small sanhedrin, but I'm having trouble following the reasoning. It says (my notes in brackets): From where do we learn that the little Sanhedrin should be ...
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Can a Judge Issue a Ruling After his Death?

In a recent decision (No. 18-272, Yovino v. Rizo, decided February 25, 2019 Per Curiam, properly cited as 586 U. S. ___ (2019)), the United States Supreme Court (SCOTUS) dealt with the matter of a ...
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Why representatives were sent to spy and not the elders?

What was the logic of sending tribes' representatives and not simply [from the] the elders, isn't it what the elders were elected for - to decide for the masses? In other words, even if some of them ...
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Was the bat kol right?

In Bava Metzia 59b, the rabbis are discussing a matter of halacha, and at some point a Voice from Heaven (bat kol) interjects an opinion. The rabbis reply that the Torah is out of God's hands (they ...
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Where did the 70 elders (High Sanhedrin) sit in the wilderness?

All the depictions of the tribal camps around the Mishkan in the desert show that the tribe of Levi was surrounding it and Israel were not allowed in there. I don't recall a reference to a specific ...
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Why Poskim don't work and write in groups?

At any given moment there are several leading (and hundreds of secondary) Rabbis and Poskim. Each one running his own Yeshivah, writing his books and issuing his own Psakim. I understood that the ...
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