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Back when there was a formal, central body of Jewish legislators, the Sanhedrin, they would occasionally excommunicate someone. The most common instance that we have recorded in the Talmud is for a rabbi who refuses to submit to the final ruling of the Sanhedrin and continues to publicly rule for others in a different direction. E.g. the Sanhedrin took a ...


9

Pshat At the simplest level, he was acting in a manner akin to the zaken mamre or "rebellious elder" (Deuteronomy 17:12). As the Gemara in Sanhedrin explains, a member of the Sanhedrin is allowed, and encouraged, to express a dissenting opinion. However, once the Sanhedrin votes and his opinion is determined to be the minority, he may still: Personally ...


2

Rama rules (YD 334:2) based on a responsum of Rivash (173) that one who is in cheirem is not banned from the community synagogue qua being in cheirem, though he does not count for the minyan. However, since one may not sit down within 4 amot of someone in cheirem (Shulchan Aruch ibid.), some communities do remove him (ֹגרשו) from the synagogue because of the ...


2

See ShA YD 334:3-4 and 345:4. In short, if the Niddui was due to monetary issues, they would sit Shiva, but if it was due to Issurim (heresy, not listening to the Rabbis, etc.) then they would only sit Shiva if the one in Niddui had repented (even if he wasn't yet formally released from his Niddui). No matter what they can accept condolences, just like the ...


1

On Yom Kippur we do not permit an excommunicated person to pray in the Shul. We permit an Avaryon (עבריין) to pray in the Shul. A excommunicated person is someone who is in Cherem (חרם). There is no mention of allowing an excommunicated person to join in the Shul on Yom Kippur. Here is a link to see the entire Kol Nidrei where there is no mention of ...


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