The main question is, are there other instances of God punishing someone for something they have yet to have committed? and how do we explain away this paradox?
Yes and no.
There are other instances where people are killed prior to their embarking on a evil path.
From the most well known examples would be the case of a Ben Sorer Umoreh.
The Gemara (...
The Babylonian Talmud in Rosh Hashana 16b states:
וא"ר יצחק אין דנין את האדם אלא לפי מעשיו של אותה שעה שנאמר כי שמע אלהים אל קול הנער באשר הוא שם
R. Isaac further said: Man is judged only according to his actions up to the time of judgment, as it
says, God hath heard the voice of the lad as he is there.
The same idea appears in the parallel passage in ...