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15

I was a little boy at home when my father Yigal Calek ny"v composed Mareh Cohen - there's a very interesting 'composer's inspiration' story to go with it too... Anyway, so yes, pretty much "at the source" ;)


11

After a bit more searching, it looks like Yigal Calek of the London School of Jewish Song may be the original composer as late as 1971.


8

This was birkat kohanim, the priestly blessing, which (in the diaspora, at least for Ashkenazim) is done only on the high holy days and festivals. In Israel it is done at each morning service (where a minyan is present). This is a reflection of a temple practice. I have been taught that one reason our kohanim take their shoes off is because they did in ...


8

R Akiva Eiger (responsum #9 (old series), citing the controversial Besamim Rosh #89) argues that women are exempt from Musaf because they are exempt from the half-Shekel tax. R Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor (Beit Yitzchak OC #20) rejected this argument because then not only women, but even Kohanim, Leviyim and those under 20 would also be exempt, which he ...


7

In the Kuntras Yekar Tifferes (http://beta.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=36072&st=&pgnum=204) the author brings this question in the name of HaRav Zvi Perzovicz shlitoh who provides an interesting answer. The Tur in the beginning of Hilchos Rosh Chodesh says that really the 12 Roshei Chadashim should have been Yomim Toivim, however, because of ...


7

The kapparah of Rosh Chodesh is different than the regular type. On one level, the goat offered as a chatas on this day (also on the other Yamim Tovim, incidentally, except for Yom Kippur) is to atone for cases of tum'ah involving the Beis Hamikdash or sacred foods where there was "no knowledge at the beginning or the end" - in other words, the person never ...


7

Your question is asked word for word by the Mishnah Berurah on Orach Chayim 132, seif katan 14: וצ"ע למה אנו אומרין אותה בשבת ויו"ט אחר מוסף והלא הקטורת קודמת למוספין לכו"ע והיא שייכא לקרבן תמיד And he gives the Magen Avraham's answer as a possibility - that we want to finish our prayer with divrei Torah, before starting out with our day: ואפשר ...


7

There are three different minhagim (according to Kaf HaChayim) for the timing of this addition: only during Adar 2, all year long (Cheshvan to Elul), and from Cheshvan to Adar 2. Rabbi Shelomo Min-HaHar z"l (former rabbi of the Bayit VaGan community in Jerusalem) explains that this last minhag (which you're asking about) is due to the fact that from Nissan ...


6

Mishna B'rura 622:5 (in my own free translation) explains the Rama's ruling that it's not said with the following explanation: That's because on Shabas it's said to complete the discrepancy of 100 b'rachos, which is not necessary on Yom Kipur due to the plethora of praises we say. The make-up of the k'tores also needn't be said, as it's included in the ...


6

Yerushalmi Taanis Perek 2 Halacha 1 אמר רבי לעזר: שלשה דברים מבטלין את הגזירה קשה ואילו הן: תפילה וצדקה ותשובה.


6

The red-letter days listed in your question are, indeed, the only times we say it, and for the reason you quote: because those are the days the musaf sacrificial offerings were offered to God in the Temple back in the good old days. See Numbers chapters 28–29.


6

The קרובות for Musaph of Shemini Atzeres is known as a שבעתא and, although many consider the main part to זכור אב (in מנהג פולין) or איום זכור נא (in מנהג אשכנז), the main part was once אף-ברי. This פיוט, written by רבי אלעזר הקליר, was originally split into seven parts (hence, why it is known as a שבעתא). Each part was for a different ברכה in חזרת הש''ץ. ...


6

R. Baruch HaLevi Epstein in Torah Temimah to Shemot 30 footnote 22 writes that according to the opinion which you cited that would exempt women from tefilat musaf (which he attributes to Besamim Rosh and subsequently R. Akiva Eger) and according to the many opinions that a young man from thirteen to twenty years of age was exempt from the obligation to ...


5

The Sefer HaMinhagim of R' Yitzchak Tyrnau notes that all three words have the same gematria of 136; this is to remind us that all three aspects are equally important (Hagahos haMinhagim Aseres Y'mei Teshuvah). The Chasam Sofer notes that these three elements were employed by the people of Ninveh in their efforts to achieve divine pardon, and this set the ...


5

See this article (Hebrew). The piyutim (shivatot) classically recited by nusach Ashkenaz at musaf of shekalim and hachodesh (although now omitted by many, many congregations) were composed by the Kalir. The author notes that the Kalir actually composed many shivatot for all of the arba parshiyot, but he claims that for some reason, only two (for shekalim ...


5

Rabbi Shmuel Kamenetsky in his Sefer brings as the source for a Shabbos morning Drasha prior to Musaf Brachos 28b first Rashi.


5

Perhaps you are thinking about a citation from Rabbi Eliyahu Kitov, The Book of our Heritage as shown in Reciting Musaf At The Time Of Divine compassion If an individual recites Musaf on Rosh Hashanah in his home, he should not do so during the first three hours of the day, for that is a period of Divine judgment, when God is angered by the idolaters ...


4

According to this article, in Eretz Yisrael in ancient times they did recite the entire section for each Yom Tov (including the verses describing the menachos and nesachim). But because it's difficult to remember them (particularly before siddurim began to be written), in Babylonia the ומנחתם ונסכיהם paragraph was created to regularize the description of ...


4

The Ramat Shmuel in his commentary on Pesachim writes that Musaf was established by Avraham. Since the posuk (Bereishis 19:27) says: "And Abraham got up early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the LORD." which implies that he had stood there previously to pray and if so, necessarily we are talking about Musaf. This is why it said "to ...


4

This issue is discussed at length by the Rishonim. Ramban says mentioning the olah suffices so we know all the Rosh Chodesh musafim were offered. Chizkuni says the chatat of Rosh Chodesh atones for different types of sin than the chatat of Rosh Hashana so would be inappropriate to mention in the same breath. But the interesting opinion is that of Rabbeinu ...


4

The law is in shulchan aruch orach Chaim 490 I guess that it is the same reason that we are strict to say shehechyanu (and do everything) on the second day as on the first day (since we live by the calander now lasy people might say it is not the same as the first day and we can do what we want) As the shulchan aruch harav 490.1 sais ... יבאו ...


4

I found in Siddur Kol Tefilos Hashana - Philadelphia 1905 - that it is called Shir Hakavod since it speaks about the honor of the creator - Hashem.


4

Focusing on the question of blowing during the silent amidah of musaf, R. E. Melamed has an in-depth article available here (Hebrew). I will summarize some of his key points in my answer here. The original custom seems to have been not to blow during the silent amidah. This was certainly the case among the majority of the geonim, where the custom was that ...


3

The source is the Bavli Rosh Hashanah 31a: במוספי דשבתא מה היו אומרים? אמר רב ענן בר רבא אמר רב: הזי"ו ל"ך. ואמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב: כדרך שחלוקים כאן - כך חלוקין בבית הכנסת. במנחתא דשבתא מה היו אומרים? אמר רבי יוחנן: אז ישיר ומי כמוך ואז ישיר‏ At the additional sacrifice of Sabbath what did they say? — R. Anan b. Raba said in the name of Rab: "...


3

It seems from the language of the Shulchan Aruch 129:1 that the omission is dependent on the mincha service, not the time. In addition to shacharis, musaf and neilah, the SA allows bircas kohanim at mincha on a fast day based on 2 factors. Firstly, the custom [was] to daven late on fast days and so the mincha service takes on a similarity to a neila ...


3

Literally stumbled upon this source last week: http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=4199&st=&pgnum=454 and the following page 455 where the author [Rav Gedalia Felder, zt"l; Posek from Toronto, Ontario, Niftar in 1992] posits that the Drasha is not a Hefsek prior to Kaddish right before Musaf.


3

The version used by the Alter Rebbe in his siddur, which is not strictly the nusach of the Ari z"l, but rather according to the nusach of the Ari z"l, is based upon a comment found in the siddur of Rabbi Shabtai of Rashkov. Rabbi Shabtai was the recognized expert in the nusach of the Ari z"l from the time of the Ba'al Shem Tov and served as his Sofer. In ...


3

The potential of rebuilding the Temple is constantly present: סנהדרין צח ע"א ר' יהושע בן לוי אשכח לאליהו ... אמר ליה אימת אתי משיח אמר ליה זיל שייליה לדידיה ... א"ל לאימת אתי מר א"ל היום אתא לגבי אליהו...א"ל הכי אמר לך (תהלים צה, ז) היום אם בקולו תשמעו Sanhedrin 98a R' Yehosuah Ben Levi found Eliahu... He told him, when the messiah will come? He ...


2

This is more of an extended comment.... I don't have a source for this, but the original source for this says that we learn it from Divrei Hayamim 14:7 - G-d's response to Shlomo's prayer to build a Temple. There are a lot of things in here that are relevant to the season. One thing is that the next posuk is: עַתָּה, עֵינַי יִהְיוּ פְתֻחוֹת, וְאָזְנַי, ...


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