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19

The Rambam (Hilchot Rotzeach uShmirat Nefesh 5:11) writes If the [unintentional] killer is slain within the Sabbath limits of the city of refuge, the one who slayed him should be executed. see also end of 5:12 Thus, if a person kills unintentionally and takes refuge at the altar, and the blood redeemer kills him there, he should be executed as if ...


9

The Sefer HaChinuch writes as follows: Sefer HaChinuch Mitzvah # 410 ונוהגת מצוה זו בזמן שישראל על אדמתן וסנהדרין של שבעים ואחד יושבין במקומן המוכן להם בירושלם לדין דיני נפשות And this commandment is operative during the time that Israel is on their land and the Sanhedrin of 71 is sitting in their place that is prepared for them in Jerusalem ...


8

First, the concept of killing a non-guilty party in self defense is learned from the Gemara in Sanhedrin 82a. (See also the commentary of the Rosh to this Gemara; 9:4) When Pinchas was (doing the right thing; hence not guilty; see Numbers ch. 24) chasing after Zimri, to kill him with a spear, the Gemara explains that Zimri was allowed to kill Pinchas in self ...


7

Mishna Sanhedrin 8.6 [A thief] who comes through a tunnel [into one's house] is judged on the basis of his end. If he came through a tunnel and broke a jug: if he has blood-guilt, he is liable; if he does not have blood-guilt, he is exempt. Rambam comment הבא במחתרת נדון על שם סופו היה בא כו': וכן הבא במחתרת ידוע הוא שכונתו שאם יעמוד בעל הבית להציל ...


6

Regarding your second bullet point, as to whether he would be punished if he kills the Goel Hadom, this is dealt with by the Mishneh Lamelech, Hilchot Rotzeach, 1:15 who says he will not be punished. This is based on the Gemara on Sanhedrin 82a: and it appears that he is not punished for this, as Chazal have mentioned that if Zimri would have killed ...


5

R. Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe, Orach Chayyim V, 18 shares your puzzlement, but suggests that indeed, this is referring to the rule of the goel hadam, following the opinion that is a mitzvah for the goel hadam to avenge his relative. ומה שכתב ללכת חוץ לתחום לנקום נקמת אביו, פלא. וכי היכן מצינו שיש בכלל מצווה לנקום, אף שהוא לכבוד אביו. ואולי כוונתו בדין ...


3

Shu"t Maharil (14-15th century) writes (responsum #138): כמדומה שמעתי מאביך הקדוש ה׳ ינקום דמו (Credit: Double AA)


3

Neither "do not kill" nor "do not murder" is really an accurate translation of "לא תרצח" (at least according to common understandings of those English words). There are certainly times when it's permitted (and even required) to kill people (e.g. executions, self-defense, war, etc.) so this is clearly not a blanket prohibition on killing. On the other hand, ...


3

See "Chizkuni" (Shemos 20:13) ולשון זה של "רציחה" לא שייך רק במיתה שלא כדין, אבל לשון מיתה ולשון הריגה, בין בדין בין שלא כדין Chizkuni differentiates between הריגה ("killing") and רציחה ("murder"). He states that "murder" only refers to killing when it is unlawful. But if a person kills lawfully, he does not violate the commandment. Accordingly, the ...


2

Rashi, Radak and Metzudat David to Hoshea' 1:4 all explain that Yehu was supposed to wipe out Achav and his house due to their sins of idolatory. Once Yehu and his descendants also began to serve idols, G-d no longer treated Yehu's killing of Achav's house as a meritorious act, but instead as shedding innocent blood. Malbim has a slightly different ...


2

There are certain people for which the prohibition falls aside. (I’m not even referring to capital punishment here, or extralegal punishment performed by Beis Din.) One is obligated to kill in self-defense (Sanhedrin 72a) and if one is chasing after someone else to kill, rape, or some other of a specific list of sins (Sanhedrin 73a). With that category ...


1

Rambam, Hilchot Melachim 9:4: בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁהָרַג נֶפֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ עֵבָּר בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹ נֶהֱרָג עָלָיו.‏ A non-Jew who kills someone, even a fetus in its mother’s womb, is executed. More generally, ibid. 9:14: וְכֵיצַד מְצֻוִּין הֵן עַל הַדִּינִין. חַיָּבִין לְהוֹשִׁיב דַּיָּנִין וְשׁוֹפְטִים בְּכָל פֶּלֶךְ וּפֶלֶךְ לָדוּן בְּשֵׁשׁ מִצְוֹת ...


1

There are two words - הרג and רצח. Whereas 'הרג' connotes killing, and 'רצח' denotes murder. (I have seen evidence for this in the writings of R' Saadya Gaon, particularly in אמונה ודעות)


1

There don't seem to be any classical Jewish texts that discuss a comparable scenario until the Rabbi Avraham Y. Karlitz (Chazon-Ish Yoreh De’ah, Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 69; Sanhedrin, Sec. 25) in the 20th century - who deliberates a case of “diverting the arrow” and even he was inconclusive. However, the Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg (Tzitz Eliezer Responsa, Vol ...


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