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19

The Rambam (Hilchot Rotzeach uShmirat Nefesh 5:11) writes If the [unintentional] killer is slain within the Sabbath limits of the city of refuge, the one who slayed him should be executed. see also end of 5:12 Thus, if a person kills unintentionally and takes refuge at the altar, and the blood redeemer kills him there, he should be executed as if ...


13

He stays in his Ir Miklat, in all cases even to save a life, as the Rambam explains in Hilchot Rotzeach uShmirat Nefesh 7:8 A person who was exiled to a city of refuge should never leave his city of refuge, not even to perform a mitzvah or to deliver testimony - neither testimony involving monetary matters, nor testimony involving a capital case. He ...


7

Mishna Sanhedrin 8.6 [A thief] who comes through a tunnel [into one's house] is judged on the basis of his end. If he came through a tunnel and broke a jug: if he has blood-guilt, he is liable; if he does not have blood-guilt, he is exempt. Rambam comment הבא במחתרת נדון על שם סופו היה בא כו': וכן הבא במחתרת ידוע הוא שכונתו שאם יעמוד בעל הבית להציל ...


6

Regarding your second bullet point, as to whether he would be punished if he kills the Goel Hadom, this is dealt with by the Mishneh Lamelech, Hilchot Rotzeach, 1:15 who says he will not be punished. This is based on the Gemara on Sanhedrin 82a: and it appears that he is not punished for this, as Chazal have mentioned that if Zimri would have killed ...


4

The definition you present for svara is incorrect; it is not arguable. Mahartz Chayus (Mavo Hatalmud, Ch. 4) states and proves that svara has the same status as the aforementioned methods. Therefore, the svara presented in the Talmud cannot be argued upon as you propose and wouldn't leave any room for questioning (ie we have an explicit source). עוד יש ...


3

Shu"t Maharil (14-15th century) writes (responsum #138): כמדומה שמעתי מאביך הקדוש ה׳ ינקום דמו (Credit: Double AA)


3

Neither "do not kill" nor "do not murder" is really an accurate translation of "לא תרצח" (at least according to common understandings of those English words). There are certainly times when it's permitted (and even required) to kill people (e.g. executions, self-defense, war, etc.) so this is clearly not a blanket prohibition on killing. On the other hand, ...


3

See "Chizkuni" (Shemos 20:13) ולשון זה של "רציחה" לא שייך רק במיתה שלא כדין, אבל לשון מיתה ולשון הריגה, בין בדין בין שלא כדין Chizkuni differentiates between הריגה ("killing") and רציחה ("murder"). He states that "murder" only refers to killing when it is unlawful. But if a person kills lawfully, he does not violate the commandment. Accordingly, the ...


2

There are certain people for which the prohibition falls aside. (I’m not even referring to capital punishment here, or extralegal punishment performed by Beis Din.) One is obligated to kill in self-defense (Sanhedrin 72a) and if one is chasing after someone else to kill, rape, or some other of a specific list of sins (Sanhedrin 73a). With that category ...


2

Rashi, Radak and Metzudat David to Hoshea' 1:4 all explain that Yehu was supposed to wipe out Achav and his house due to their sins of idolatory. Once Yehu and his descendants also began to serve idols, G-d no longer treated Yehu's killing of Achav's house as a meritorious act, but instead as shedding innocent blood. Malbim has a slightly different ...


2

You read Midrash Tanchuma (Buber edition) Vayikra 28,1 which says the King of Moav killed Dovid's parents and brothers except Elihu his brother. ויסע משם אברהם. כתיב רעך ורע אביך וגו' (משלי כז י), זה חנון בן נחש מלך בני עמון, שנאמר ויהי אחרי כן וימת (נחש) מלך בני עמון וגו' (ש"ב י א), ויאמר דוד אעשה חסד עם חנון בן נחש וגו' (שם שם ב), אמר ר' ברכיה בשם ר' ...


2

The svara is explained in several tosfotim in Shas, e.g. in Yevamot 53b, explaining the Gemara in Sanhedrin. When one of two men would be killed anyways, and the one of them has a choice to make a criminal act to kill the second man or to do nothing and be killed, we have a svara. His own life isn't more valuable than the life of the second man. So, to make ...


1

Rambam, Hil. Yesodei HaTorah 5:5: וְכֵן אִם אָמְרוּ לָהֶם עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים תְּנוּ לָנוּ אֶחָד מִכֶּם וְנַהַרְגֶּנּוּ וְאִם לָאו נַהֲרֹג כֻּלְּכֶם. יֵהָרְגוּ כֻּלָּם וְאַל יִמְסְרוּ לָהֶם נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. וְאִם יִחֲדוּהוּ לָהֶם וְאָמְרוּ תְּנוּ לָנוּ פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ נַהֲרֹג אֶת כֻּלְּכֶם. אִם הָיָה מְחֻיָּב מִיתָה כְּשֶׁבַע בֶּן בִּכְרִי ...


1

Rambam, Hilchot Melachim 9:4: בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁהָרַג נֶפֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ עֵבָּר בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹ נֶהֱרָג עָלָיו.‏ A non-Jew who kills someone, even a fetus in its mother’s womb, is executed. More generally, ibid. 9:14: וְכֵיצַד מְצֻוִּין הֵן עַל הַדִּינִין. חַיָּבִין לְהוֹשִׁיב דַּיָּנִין וְשׁוֹפְטִים בְּכָל פֶּלֶךְ וּפֶלֶךְ לָדוּן בְּשֵׁשׁ מִצְוֹת ...


1

There are two words - הרג and רצח. Whereas 'הרג' connotes killing, and 'רצח' denotes murder. (I have seen evidence for this in the writings of R' Saadya Gaon, particularly in אמונה ודעות)


1

There don't seem to be any classical Jewish texts that discuss a comparable scenario until the Rabbi Avraham Y. Karlitz (Chazon-Ish Yoreh De’ah, Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 69; Sanhedrin, Sec. 25) in the 20th century - who deliberates a case of “diverting the arrow” and even he was inconclusive. However, the Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg (Tzitz Eliezer Responsa, Vol ...


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