Wages must be paid to an employee, and paid on time:
לֹֽא־תַעֲשֹׁ֥ק אֶת־רֵֽעֲךָ֖ וְלֹ֣א תִגְזֹ֑ל לֹֽא־תָלִ֞ין פְּעֻלַּ֥ת שָׂכִ֛יר אִתְּךָ֖ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר׃
You shall not defraud your fellow. You shall not commit robbery. The wages of a laborer shall not remain with you until morning.
לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁ֥ק שָׂכִ֖יר עָנִ֣י וְאֶבְי֑וֹן ...
A colleague of mine reminded me that there is actually a Gemara in Berachos 44b that describes a young healthy goat as a 'bar zuza', meaning it costs one zuz. He explained that although Chad Gadya states that the goat was bought for 2 zuz, there are major commentators (see Haggados of the Vlna Gaon and Chasam Sofer) that explain that the repetition of "Chad ...
The front is the seal of the State of Israel.
The Hebrew on the back is a verse from Ruth (Ruth 3:10) which means "You are blessed to G-d, my daughter" which were words that Boaz said to Ruth when she asked him to marry her.
It doesn't have an official name; it is a thoughtful trinket.
The first precept of Medishare's Membership Qualifications is "Christian Testimony," stating generally that
All adult Members age 18 and older must attest to a personal relationship with the Lord Jesus Christ."
and then specifying a "Statement of Faith" that includes quite a few assertions about the divinity of a particular man. Such affirmations are ...
There are a few explanations, all of which (except one) can be found by looking at the following commentaries on the verse cited in the question, Deut. 23:19:
Ibn Ezra thought that dogs were simply understood to be disgraceful animals and not to be associated with the purity of sacrifice
Ramban writes that dogs are used for hunting and are therefore ...
Chicago Community Kollel - Parsha Encounters 4 Shevat 5768 in the name of Rabbi Yisrael Belsky Shlita, says that one may flip a coin to make a decision.
When one flips a coin and makes a decision based on the results, he
does not feel his decision is necessarily the right thing to do.
Rather, he was undecided, and he is leaving his decision up to
See the Talmud’s elaboration on 49b:
על מנת שאני עשיר אין אומרים כרבי אלעזר בן חרסום וכרבי אלעזר בן עזריה אלא כל שבני עירו מכבדים אותו מפני עושרו
‘On condition that I am wealthy,’ we do not say, like R. Eleazar b. Harsom and R. Eleazar b. Azariah, but as long as he is honoured by his fellow citizens on account of his wealth.
As explained here on chabad.org:
The Rebbe, of righteous memory, stood for hours distributing dollars and blessings to thousands of people every Sunday, and on other occasions. The Rebbe’s intention was that the recipient should give the dollar to charity. In this way, explained the Rebbe, when two meet, it should benefit another.
Usually, instead of giving ...
"Rama, Orach Chaim 656:1, rules that one must spend up to one-fifth of his assets on order to fulfill a positive [Biblical] mitzvah and his entire fortune in order not to violate a negative [Biblical] commandment." (source) As for negative commandments that are violated by passivity--such as the commandment that you may not allow someone else to die--there ...
The Lubavitcher Rebbe says (in a long speech about "Family Planning") that
One of the strongest objections is fear of financial inability to support children. Naturally, parents want the best for their children, and fear of being unable to provide adequately is a powerful deterrent to having them. This is a genuine concern -- but based on an ...
Biblical scholarship usually identifies the word kelev here as a colloquial term for a male prostitute — this seems clear from the parallelism within the verse (zonah [f.] = kelev [m.]) as well as with the previous verse (qedesha [f.] = qadesh [m.]). The terms qadesh/*qedesha* may refer to 'sacred' cultic or temple prostitution, while zonah and kelev would ...
Rabbi Reisman in Hilchos Ribis deals with this. If you are going to spend the money, then that is defined as a loan and any fee for that 'rental' is 'ribis'. Renting property means that you return the same property that you rented, such as renting a tractor to plow your field. That is why there is a discussion as to borrowing flour to make a cake and when, ...
The local currency is always considered to have a constant value. Any
price changes are attributed to fluctuations in the value of the
merchandise, and not to changes in the value of the currency. This is
true even where economic conditions are clearly the reason for the
price change (e.g., where the price of a foreign-made car increases
due to ...
Based on a shiur by Rav Amnon Bazak at Yeshivat Har Etzion quoting the Arugas Habosem the amount paid by Avraham was enough to buy 2.4 million square Amos.
In an extraordinary piece of arithmetic computation, the Arugat
Ha-bosem proves that 400 shekel - the price of sdei ha-machpela - was
enough to buy 2.4 million square amot, based on the price of ...
See OU.org that broiling is an alternative method for Koshering meat.
The Torah forbids the consumption of the blood of an animal. The two
accepted methods of extracting blood from meat, a process referred to
as “koshering”, are either salting or broiling.
First of all, meat can be eaten raw (unsalted, unroasted, un-anything, straight from the carcass) after just rinsing it (YD 67:2).
Regarding salting, a non-trivial number of rabbinic authorities (even current ones) have allowed using sugar to 'salt' meat when salt was not an option (for availability or medical reasons). See this article for a sampling of ...
On the verse (Ex. 30:12)
כִּ֣י תִשָּׂ֞א אֶת־רֹ֥אשׁ בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֘ל לִפְקֻדֵיהֶם֒ וְנָ֨תְנ֜וּ אִ֣ישׁ כֹּ֧פֶר נַפְשׁ֛וֹ לַיהוָ֖ה בִּפְקֹ֣ד אֹתָ֑ם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶ֥ה בָהֶ֛ם נֶ֖גֶף בִּפְקֹ֥ד אֹתָֽם׃
Rashi cites the sages who commented (Sefaria trans.):
THAT THERE BE NO CALAMITY AMONG THEM — for numbers (i. e. things that have been numbered) are subject ...
The answers to both of your questions (1. Does shemitat kesafim annul the loan, or merely forbid the lender from claiming? and 2. Does shemitat kesafim happen automatically?) would appear to be the subjects of arguments among the Rishonim.
Many Rishonim would appear to understand that shemitat kesafim is indeed a full, automatic annulment of the loan....
It's virtually impossible to compare money from such a long time ago.
Common comparisons are:
Value of precious metal.
Cost of a days meal.
Each measure will give you a different number. For a goat probably a days labor is the best measure, since that's what you would have to do to get one.
A day laborer (unskilled) in those days would earn ...
Jewish law distinguishes three categories of value: goods, which have inherent value; a note, which is a promise of value from a particular individual; and money, which is abstract value.
You might think that Gold and Silver coins have inherent not abstract value, but as the Chazon Ish ...
R' Chaim Na'eh in his Shiurey Torah (3:42) calculated the weight of a Talmudic era peruta coin as 1/40th of a gram of silver (25mg). According to WolframAlpha this is worth 0.02 USD at the time of posting. However, this may not be the contemporory understanding of "shaveh perutah" in Halacha.
According to Pirkei De'Rebbi Eliezer (Chapter 50), he got his wealth by looting all the treasure houses of the kings of Yehuda and the Kodshei Kedoshim (Holy of Holies):
רבי פנחס אומר שני עשירים היו לפנים בעולם, קרח בישראל והמן בשושן . . שלקח כל אוצרות מלכי יהודה ואת כל אוצרות קדשי הקדשים
See Chazon Ish (D’mai 3:12) proves that modern coins may be used even though they have no intrinsic value, and offers a possible explanation as to why that logic does not apply to
paper money which traditionally has not been used for these purposes. (footnote 16 on article "THE HUNT FOR THE PERUTAH CHAMURAH" by Rabbi Dovid Cohen http://www.crcweb.org/...
Shulchan Aruch in Yoreh Deah siman 240 siff 5 says one is required to lose work in order to honor his parents, even though this will cause the child to end up needing to collect money for himself. However, this is only when the son has money to support himself that day, if he does not have even that much, he does not have to lose work.
A biblical shekel is 768 p'ruta and fifty are thus 960 grams of silver. That's about US$459.27 today. As Double AA notes (in a comment on the question), though, that's just the fine: the rapist must also pay actual damages.
According to R Tzvi Spitz in his book, Cases in Monetary Halacha, yes you do. He brings the following points
Just as there is a mitzvah to return lost objects to their owner, so it is obligatory to save a fellow Jew from incurring a loss of any kind if one is able to do so
One acting in this manner has fulfilled a Torah commandment and, conversely, if he ...
The Gemoro Bovo Metzia 42a has a passage that is reminiscent of your question.
R. Isaac also said: A blessing is found only in what is hidden from
the eye,5 for it is written, "The Lord shall command the blessing upon
thee in thy hidden things."6
The School of R. Ishmael taught: A blessing comes only to that over
which the eye has no power,7 ...
Both wealth and poverty are tests and pose different difficulties.
שָׁ֤וְא ׀ וּֽדְבַר־כָּזָ֡ב הַרְחֵ֬ק מִמֶּ֗נִּי רֵ֣אשׁ וָ֭עֹשֶׁר אַל־תִּֽתֶּן־לִ֑י הַ֝טְרִיפֵ֗נִי לֶ֣חֶם חֻקִּֽי׃
פֶּ֥ן אֶשְׂבַּ֨ע ׀ וְכִחַשְׁתִּי֮ וְאָמַ֗רְתִּי מִ֥י יְה֫וָ֥ה וּפֶֽן־אִוָּרֵ֥שׁ וְגָנַ֑בְתִּי וְ֝תָפַ֗שְׂתִּי שֵׁ֣ם אֱלֹהָֽי׃
Keep lies and false words far from me;