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21

The Commentary on the Mishnah came first. In his colophon at the end of it, Rambam writes that he began writing the commentary at age 23, and finished it at age 30, in the year 1479 of the "Era of Documents" (4928 since Creation, 1168 CE). The Mishneh Torah, on the other hand, was written in the 4930s. In the introduction he says that the current year is ...


20

A Google spreadsheet with all that information (and more!) is available here. A screenshot of the more relevant part is clipped below:


18

I have no time to read the article - and therefore do not endorse anything they write. The Rabbis instituted that Holy Books like a Sefer Torah would defile the hands. Why? Because people would keep their Teruma (tithes to be given to the Cohen) with their Holy Books. This was to prevent their Teruma from becoming Tameh (impure). The rationale was the ...


17

With regard to Sh'kalim, I believe the answer does indeed rely on publication practices. The practice of printing (and therefore studying) Sh'kalim with the rest of Talmud Bavli Seder Moed can be traced as far back as the times of the Geonim. [The idea is that Sh'kalim is short and therefore relatively inexpensive to print with the rest of Seder Moed to ...


16

In the manuscript Parma 3173 there is no "מישראל"; In the manuscript Budapest Kaufman A50 no more; The Mishna of Mechon Mamre, Mishna Sanhedrin 4:5 based on Rambam manuscript idem; לפיכך נברא אדם יחידי בעולם, ללמד שכל המאבד נפש אחת, מעלים עליו כאילו איבד עולם מלא; וכל המקיים נפש אחת, מעלים עליו כאילו קיים עולם מלא. ‏ In Shinuye Nussachaot Shas ...


14

In the introduction to the Tur (upon which the Shulchan Aruch is based), R' Yaakov Baal HaTurim writes that he organized the Sefer based on the order of the day, how a person should conduct himself from when he wakes up until he goes to sleep.


14

From Soncino's intro to Seder Moed: "It might be observed that the designation 'Mo'ed' is in the singular, as distinct from the plural forms used to designate the other Orders, e.g., Nashim, Nezikin, etc. It has been suggested that the singular is here specially used to avoid the confusion that might arise through the employment of the plural Seder Mo'adim (...


13

HaMaor Volume 46 Number 3 Page 26 says that since all the Yomim Tovim are going to be nullified besides Purim when Moshiach comes therefore it is called Moed in singular form as the only Mesechta remaining will be Megila. Otzar Kol Minhagei Yishurin Siman 7 * note says that since the names of the Shisha Sidrei Mishna are based on the Pasuk והיה אמונת עתיך ...


13

If she confesses she won't be put to death by Beis Din since you need 2 witnesses for that. And if there are 2 witnesses then she won't be tested by the sota water, hence there are not 2 witnesses. We don't execute a person based on his own testimony (Rambam, Hilkhot Sanhedrin 18:6; see also Yevamot 25b), and we don't include an admission with another ...


13

It's a Mishna in Sota 3:4 where it says: הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, חָסִיד שׁוֹטֶה, וְרָשָׁע עָרוּם, וְאִשָּׁה פְרוּשָׁה, וּמַכּוֹת פְּרוּשִׁין, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְכַלֵּי עוֹלָם As Sefaria translates: He [Rabbi Eliezer] would say: A foolish pious man, a cunning evil man, an [excessively] abstinent woman, and the self-flagellations of ascetics, all these destroy ...


12

We say every morning "Neshalma parim sefatenu". Since we cannot offer Korbanot , we got the Tfila instead. So the Tfila follows the order of the Korbanot. For the Korbanot the day starts after sunrise.


12

According to the Kahati comment on that Mishnah, it should be read A ger brings but does not read ... If [he is not a ger but only] his mother is Jewish he brings and says ... Kahati explains that this is put in because we might think that a person whose father is not a Jew but whose mother is a Jew would not be able to say the pasuk because the term ...


12

In terms of why they argue, the Arizal wrote that Beis Shammai embodied the characteristic of middas hadin, strict justice, whereas Beis Hillel embodied the attribute of middas harachamim, mercy. They had world-views which led to their manifold disputes, with B"S consistently falling on the side of stringency and B"H on the side of leniency. (It was once ...


12

This phenomenon is described by R. Shimshon of Chinon in his Sefer HaKeritot (Leshon Limmudim, Sha'ar Sheni, 73). He suggests that: ושמא בילדותו תנא להו כמו שאמרו ב"ש וחזר בו בזקנותו והמשנה לא זזה ממקומה.‏ Perhaps he taught to them when he was younger as is stated by Beit Shammai, and then he changed his mind when he was older, but the [original]...


11

The Rav (ad loc.) explains that these are opposites: One who borrows without repaying doesn't foresee that, therefore, people will refuse to lend to him in the future. R' Shim'on b. N'san'el didn't want to say "one who doesn't see what's coming", explains the Rav, because others who don't see what's coming aren't so bad, as they may be able to get around ...


11

Excerpt from Dafnotes: The Rambam, in his introduction to his commentary on the Mishnah writes that Seder Zera’im, which addresses the mitzvos of the Land (Eretz Yisrael), was placed at the beginning of the six Orders (Sedarim) because it deals with the halachos of food from the vegetable kingdom, which is the foundation for all living existence. ...


10

Rabbi Gamliel was not the best rabbi of all time. I do not know of any Rabbi who has ever been given that title, except from sub sects of Judaism who might venerate one Rabbi over another. Many Rabbis are given pinnacle accolades, declaring that without them the nation would be lost, or after them there was a great reduction of some kind. However, being ...


10

This is a rather common expression (it appears eight times in Shas according to my search, but I know that it's very commonly found among the commentators). As you thought, בטלה refers to the subject's דעת - it means "his own intention is voided in light of everyone else's." Legally speaking, this means to say that even if a person thought to have a ...


10

Two editions of Mishnayot I have on hand1 ascribe this commentary, the עיקר תוספות יום טוב, to R' Meshulam Katz. This Geni page attributes Ikkar Tosafot Yom Tov to R' Meshulam Katz, and identifies him as the Av Beit Din of Lvov, who died there in 1810. The text in the Geni page is apparently copied2 from a pedigree record included by R' Katz' great^3-...


10

Some Mishnah manuscripts have sporadic taamim. For example, MS Parma B (containing order Tahorot) has conjuctive accents connecting words and disjunctive accents marking pauses. Here is the beginning of Mishnah Tahorot: Here is Genizah fragment T-S E1.107 in Tractate Sanhedrin, vocalized with Eretz-Israeli accents (and occasionally, vocalization): Here ...


10

It's explained in Eduyot 1:4: וְלָמָּה מַזְכִּירִין אֶת דִּבְרֵי שַׁמַּאי וְהִלֵּל לְבַטָּלָה, לְלַמֵּד לַדּוֹרוֹת הַבָּאִים שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא אָדָם עוֹמֵד עַל דְּבָרָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲבוֹת הָעוֹלָם לֹא עָמְדוּ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם: Why are the opinions of Hillel and Shammai recorded [only] to be nullified? To teach the generations that one should not be ...


9

I vaguely recall seeing some discussion about the whole "heat adding" thing years ago (maybe an old AOJS article?), but unfortunately don't have the details. Honestly, I'm still not certain how to understand the mishna. But off the top of my head ... Leo Levi's The Science in Torah suggests that something like manure worked by fermenting, and fermentation ...


9

Choosing a quick and easy mesechta of mishnayos is a highly subjective activity. The first consideration, obviously, is length. However, there are plenty of relatively short mesechtos, so this is not a major problem. The biggest issue, especially for someone with a limited background, is to avoid having too many new concepts at once, especially big ...


9

Look at the Haga'ot HaGRI"V 26 on the "Klalim B'Rashi", printed after the Mavo LaTalmud, at the end of Masechet Berachot. He says: ‫דרך רש״י בהרבה מקומות לפרש המשנה כס״ד דמקשן כדי להבין המשנה כס״ד טרם בואו אל המסקנא וזהו אך דרך‬ ‫רש״י לא כן שאר מפרשים תוי״ט פ״ב דפאה מ״ב‬ ‫ It is Rashi's way in many places to explain the Mishna according to the ...


9

I would offer three answers, which I believe may be true simultaneously. 1 While scribes were extremely careful for pesukim in Tanach, so as not to invalidate the kosher status of the sefer, they were not so careful when quoting pesukim when they occurred within the Gemara. Add to that that sometimes earlier manuscripts will shorten words or phrases with ...


9

For more information, I would recommend reading "Paul and Gamliel", in Jacob Neusner and Bruce Chilton (eds.), In Quest of the Historical Pharisees (Baylor University Press, 2007), 175-223 - but especially p208 onwards. Short answer: nobody named Paul (nor, for that matter, Shaul) ever gets mentioned as a student of this or any other Gamliel, although some ...


9

The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia answers that the division of the several treatises into chapters as well as the sequence of these chapters was the work of Rabbi [Yehuda HaNasi] himself although some changes were made over time. See there for full references. The division of the several treatises into chapters as well as the sequence of these chapters was ...


9

The gemara on Yoma 26a explains that there was just one lottery that covered both services: א"ר יוחנן אין מפייסין על תמיד של בין הערבים אלא כהן שזכה בו בשחרית זוכה בו ערבית Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They did not hold a separate lottery for the slaughtering and sacrifice of the daily afternoon offering. Rather, the same priest who won a particular ...


8

The Meiri writes in his introduction to Avot that this is an example of the Ammoraim disagreeing with the Tannaim which they would occasionally do if the Sages of the generation agreed. So that would be option (c): ועם כל זה נתמעטו הלבבות מרוב הצרות והוצרכו האחרונים לחבר אחריו דרך ביאור והרחבה ולפעמים דרך סתירה ותיקון כשהיו חכמי הדור מסכימים לכך ממה ...


8

There are 4192 Mishnayos. Source: The back of the משניות set that's called משנה סדורה. See this online downloadable version. Edit: Per @Yehoshua's comment, the link no longer seems to work, but I can still see the relevant table on the Internet Archive.


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