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Scrolls found in Ketef Hinnom contain the priestly blessing (of Numbers ch. 6) as preserved from the First Temple Era (700-650 BCE) The Isaiah scroll found in Qumran: "has been carbon-14 dated at least four times, giving calibrated date ranges between 335-324 BC and 202-107 BC; there have also been numerous paleographic and scribal dating studies placing ...


9

The oldest actual manuscript fragment appears to be the Cairo Genizah scroll fragment in the Cambridge University Library Genizah collection (which can be searched for ALL its wonderful things here-try "Talmud" or "ketubah" or "Rashi" for starters) studied by Professor Shamma Friedman, containing the Bavli's Chullin 101a - 105a. Opinions to the exact date ...


8

You're right, MS stands for manuscript, and the final M stands for Munich. It is the oldest complete manuscript of the Talmud available, which means many consider it to be the most accurate. However as Shalom pointed out, Soncino is NOT citing Jesus as being Balaam, it is citing that Jesus is in place of "sinners of Israel." i think you are seeing Balaam in ...


6

The two main texts you probably want to see, in terms of the Masoretic texts, are the Leningrad and Aleppo Codices, available online here and here respectively. See here for many more old scanned manuscripts.


5

The following appears in Megillah 15b (translation from Sefaria) אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מה נשתנו אלו מאלו אמר לה הקדוש ברוך הוא ישראל עסקו בתורה אומות העולם לא עסקו בתורה The Gemara continues with an episode associated with a verse in Isaiah. The Attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, how ...


5

Aleppo Codex: Archive.org pdf, flash version arranged by book Berlin Codex (Babylonian niqqud): Seforim Online pdf British Museum Or. 4445 (B): British Museum Cairo Codex: Wikipedia pdf, Seforim Online pdf (skewed images, includes intro) Cairo Genizah: Cambridge, Friedberg Project (partially transcribed) Damascus Codex: World Digital Library, National ...


5

Exactly as Double AA and Monica Cellio point out in the comments — the article is talking about Torah scrolls, i.e. the text of the Torah written on parchment according to specific rules, rolled around wooden 'atzei hayyim, to be used during ritual readings of the Torah in synagogue. We do have older books containing the text of the Torah, or even the TaNaKh,...


5

In his introduction to his edition of Mishneh Torah which was based on Yemenite manuscripts, R. Yosef Qafih speaks at length about the value of manuscripts. Here is one excerpted paragraph, where he explains that very often manuscripts have textual variants that can simply resolve various problems: עם הבדיקה והגהת הנוסח נוכחתי פעם נוספת עד כמה מוצדקת ...


5

Manuscripts are generally useful because they are an early witness to some text and are (sometimes) relatively free of corruption or mistakes. A good example of this would be the Aleppo codex, which is now housed in Jerusalem. This text represents the best extant text of Tanakh. Other early masoretic texts describe early textual traditions of Tanakh. Many ...


4

I think you -- and Geiger! -- misread this slightly. First there's a discussion of Balaam, and then a discussion of "the sinners of Israel." It's very likely that that second conversation had at one point said "Jesus" (now which Jesus the Talmud discussed ... is a different question), and that was censored and replaced with "the sinners of Israel." (Which ...


4

Here is the relevant page in that manuscript. The relevant passage begins on the eighth line down towards the end of the line. The term for gentile used is גוי.


4

Minchas Shai there quotes various versions which were changed in order to answer your other question about style of the surrounded Pesukim, but seems to agree that there were not many old manuscripts that contained this (he does note that some old printings have these additions). Daat Mikra also notes that they were copied into some Sefarim, but defers to ...


4

It appears so, and so does the Masoretic text. Psalm 37 Masoretic text (from Mechon Mamre): א לְדָוִד: אַל-תִּתְחַר בַּמְּרֵעִים; אַל-תְּקַנֵּא, בְּעֹשֵׂי עַוְלָה. 1 [A Psalm] of David. Fret not thyself because of evil-doers, neither be thou envious against them that work unrighteousness. ב כִּי כֶחָצִיר, מְהֵרָה יִמָּלוּ; וּכְיֶרֶק דֶּשֶׁא, ...


3

Although I don't think this will be the most used answer on this site, I did find the answer so I figured I might as well post it just on the off chance someone else is wondering the same thing. Toldot Adam V'Chava According to רבינו ירוחם השלם, the new critical edition of all his works, there are four main manuscripts for Toldot Adam V'Chava: JTS RAB 669 ...


2

The role of manuscripts depends on the person doing the psak. There is no hard and fast rule on the subject. Manuscripts and their role in psak, can be the same as "new" scientific discoveries and thier role in psak. For example, the recent controversy over the anisakis worms in fish. In general, there are four approaches to old manuscripts. It's a ...


1

Historically, stretched letters were very common, although not specifically following a ratio (The Kesset haSofer frowns on this practice, as does the Mishnah Berurah, in his commentary on O"Ch 37). Modern tikkunim follow R' Davidovitch זצ"ל, who set up a format which did not require any stretching to correctly space and fit letters, a level of achievement ...


1

The sefer is called Bircas Hareyach and can be bought here


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