15

It seems, according to this article, that people found a way. It would seem that as long as Jews stayed in the moderate climate on the shores of the Mediterranean, there was no difficulty obtaining etrogim for the holiday. As people moved north into France, Germany, Poland and Russia, however, the temperature-sensitive tree could not exist and tremendous ...


13

After Sukkos is over (and you don't need them for mitzvah purposes anymore), collect your leftover aravah branches that you used for ד' מינים and הושענות. (You may also want to collect other's branches, because many people just leave their הושענות in shul when they're done with them -- that's another 5 branches per bundle!) Place the branches in ...


12

The Gemara (Sukkah 37B) asks the same question: R. Jeremiah enquired of R. Zerika, Why in the blessing do we say only ‘To take the palm-branch’? — Because it towers above the others. Then why should not one lift up the ethrog and recite the blessing over it? — The reason is, the other answered him, that as a species it naturally towers above all of them.


11

I had an opportunity for the first time today to see the inside of four common etrogim. I found it fascinating ... and surprising. Here's a Moroccan etrog Here's a Hazon Ish etrog (for more details, see here under Contemporary Esrogim) Here's a Calabria etrog (some of the pulp on the right side was removed for tasting) Finally, here's a Teimani etrog ...


9

The Ma'amar Mordechai can be found here. The Kaf HaChayim can be found here.


7

I've tried the paper towel/aluminum foil (my father's method) idea, keeping them in the fridge, and keeping them in water. One year I got a whole lot of them and experimented with around seven different methods for each pair, to see at the end of the week which method would be the best. The winner (and what I've been doing every year since then): wet them ...


7

The poskim discuss the case of a person who separated challah with a b'rachah and then did hataras n'darim to nullify the separation (and therefore will have to separate again). Is the person's b'rachah considered l'vatalah? The Chasam Sofer says it was not l'vatalah, possibly based on the S'dei Chemed, Vol. 6, p. 320. But the case of the tallis may be ...


7

http://hershkow.comeze.com/46.pdf Regarding a old Esrog - Shaalos UTeshuvos Maharil 5 says that it is impossible to maintain its wetness from year to year and therefore it may not be used. Rama Orach Chaim 648 based on this Maharil says it is definitely dry and unusable. However the Bikurei Yaakov (Aruch Laner) says that he saw an Esrog that ...


7

The reason for taking seventy aravot on Succot was to signify the additional seventy bulls which were sacrificed on the holiday (cf. Sukka 52b); such was the custom of the Sura Academy as attested to by Natronai Gaon (Shaare Teshuvah §312). See also Otzar HaGeonim (Sukka ibid) for additional significations. The custom was ultimately codified by Tur (OC §651, ...


6

My great grandfather (in S. Germany) used to save his Lulav from year to year in his coat closet. He would remove the outer leaves and the insides were apparently still fresh enough to be used. For that matter, a lot of the Lulavim and Haddasim that are in the market now, have been in storage for many months. The Shulchan Aruch (based in the Mishna) spells ...


6

The Shulchan Aruch (OC 657) rules that if a child knows how to wave the 4 species appropriately, his father must, because of the obligation of Chinuch -- education, arrange for him to have a set. The Biur Halacha (sv Katan) notes that this is true even if they are unable to recite the proper blessing. In sv Kedei, he says that "it is obvious that the set ...


6

ד' מינים הללו מעכבין זה את זה שאם חסר לו אחד מהם לא יברך על השאר, אבל נוטלן לזכר בעלמא (בין ביום א' בין בשאר ימים)‏ These four species restrict each other such that if he was missing one of them he does not bless on the rest, but he takes them as merely a remembrance. (Shulchan Aruch OC 651:12) So you should just pick up the Etrog during the day as a ...


6

Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 658:5) rules explicitly that only if the last person returns the esrog is the first one (and all others) yotzei. Interesting sidebar: The Biur Halacha is in doubt whether they were yotzei only if the last user returned the esrog on his own volition to the original owner or even if the original owner had to demand it back from the ...


6

The Yerushalmi Sukka 15b halacha 8 seems to be the source for shaking three times : דף טו,ב פרק ג הלכה ח גמרא הא בהודו לא. להוציא אף באנא ה' הצליחה נא. רב חייה בר אשי בשם רב זה שהוא משכים לצאת לדרך נוטל לולב ומנענע. שופר ותוקע. לכשתגיע עונות קריאת שמע ה"ז קורא את שמע ומתפלל. תני צריך לנענע ג' פעמים ר' זעירה בעי הכין חד והכין חד. או הכין והכין חד. ...


6

In Orach Chaim 4 siman 123, Rav Moshe stronglly asserts that a lemon is not kosher for an esrog and says kol shekein a canary palm is not good for lulav. Later in the tshuva he quotes the Saba Kadisha in his tshuvos chelek 3 siman 12 who seems to lean to possibly allowing the lemon to be used as an esrog, but points out that even he would not allow the ...


5

I was just referred to "How to keep your aravos fresh throughout sukkos: The definitive guide for frustrated palm-frond wavers", an apparently anonymous document describing a series of nine experiments, carefully testing different strategies for keeping Aravot fresh. Read the whole thing to see all of the strategies tested and all of the results, including ...


5

Teshuvas Hage'onim (Sharey Teshuva Siman 340) cites two reasons in the name of Rav Tzemach Goan: 1) The leaves of the arova look like lips. Hitting them on the ground hints to fact that we require atonement, and therefore fulfill the verse in Eicha (3:29) "יתן בעפר פיהו, אולי יש תקווה" (Let him put his mouth into the dust; there may yet be hope), meaning to ...


5

Qitzur Shulhhan 'Arukh, Yalqut Yosef (Orahh Hayim 651:45) states (my translation): אחר שבירך, ינענע הלולב ומיניו שלש פעמים לכל צד. ואף על פי שהוא עתיד לנענע בשעת ההלל, יעשה הנענועים גם עתה אחר הברכה, ללא אומר ודברים. ודעת מרן שבנענוע צריך להקיף דרך ימין, שהוא לצד מזרח דרום מערב צפון. אבל המנהג פעיה''ק ירושלים ת''ו כמו שכתב רבינו האר''י, להקיף דרום צפון ...


5

It is indeed a problem to "give" the lulav to a minor for the reasons you have stated. Lending somebody a lulav does indeed mean that they have not performed the mitzvah as they must own it. However as a minor does not perform mitzvot anyway and you only give the lulav to him for practice, you can "lend" him the lulav so he can learn to perform the mitzvah ...


5

Waving the lulav represents our victorious emergence from the judgment of Rosh Hashanah/Yom Kippur. The following Midrash appears in Midrash Tanchuma on Parshat Emor # 18: ולקחתם לכם ביום הראשון זה שאמר הכתוב אז ירננו כל עצי יער לפני ה' כי בא כי בא לשפוט הארץ במי הכתוב מדבר בישראל ובאומות העולם שהקדוש ברוך הוא דן אותן ביום הכפורים אלו ואלו נכנסין ...


5

Sukkah 37b א"ל ר' ירמיה לר' זריקא מאי טעם לא מברכינן אלא על נטילת לולב הואיל וגבוה מכולן ולגבהיה לאתרוג ולבריך א"ל הואיל ובמינו גבוה מכולן Rabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zerika: What is the reason that we recite the blessing only with the formula: About taking the lulav, with no mention of the other species? Rabbi Zerika said to him: Since it is highest of ...


5

In the context of the other coins minted during the revolt and siege of the 1st century, it is not surprising that the depiction of the species is less photographic of "full sets" and more representative of the mitzva and of the holiday. The symbol may have been an act of rebellion in itself, bringing distinctly Jewish practice, whose restoration they were ...


4

I need to find a specific proof for this presumption, but when I learned retroactive areas, I pictured 2 timelines, 1 that happened but discontinued, and 1 that supplanted the first timeline and continued (Think Back to the Future). In the case of the esrog, the retroactive reality of not owning the esrog supplants the reality of the one where he owns the ...


4

The halacha by lulav an esrog (as codified by the Shulchan Aruch OC 648:4) is that I can give it to my friend as a present on condition that he return it, and through that it is considered that he owns it for that time period, and he thereby fulfills his obligation with it. However, if he fails to return it in time it retroactively was never his. In this ...


4

An esrog with a gartel is not mentioned in any of the classic poskim. According to Wikipedia: . . some look for an etrog with a gartel—an hourglass-like strip running around the middle, more commonly found on the Moroccan citron. According to researchers, this gartel indicates when the bearing tree was infected by a certain virus or viroid, which ...


4

Rav Wosner in Shevet Halevi 1:176 brings from the Bach that it would be mutar as long as it didn't change from its regular look,but one has to know that water from the freezer can pasul it because water makes it rot.see inside for the discussion of kavush. Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igros Moshe OC 1:185 discusses whether an esrog that was frozen can be used ...


4

The Beis Yosef (OC 651) writes in the name of the Rikanti (Parshas Emor Vayikra 23:40) [my own translation]: The Esrog must be placed next to the other species. This secret was revealed to me in a dream, on the eve of the first day of Sukkos a Chosid from Germany by the name of R' Yitzchok stayed by me. I saw in a dream that he wrote the four letter name ...


4

The Shulchan Aruch (OC 651:10) indicates that the order is forward, right, backward, left (followed by up then down, as indicated by the Mishna B'rura). This is echoed by other acharonim, and, according to the Magen Avraham, even a lefty should follow this order. The Mishna B'rura writes that "this order of the na'anu'im accords with the practice in our ...


4

There are a number of ways in which hidur is applied to esrog (and acc to the Magein Avraham other mitzvos like seffer torah and shofar as well), all of them enumerated in Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim siman 656 and the Mishna Berurah there. The gemara says to add on a third for hidur mitzvah. This is explained either as meaning a third of it's size or a ...


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