14

Rashi to Shmuel Aleph 15:3 explains that the Amalekites were sorcerers and were capable of disguising themselves as animals - and for this reason Shaul was commanded to kill even the animals. In his commentary to Devarim 25:19 he brings another explanation: The eradication of the memory of Amaleik had to be absolute, and even if animals remained alive they ...


14

This would have to begin with Micah 6:8: והצנע לכת עם א-להיך, "be tzanua in walking with your G-d" (this is one of only two instances of this root in Tanach, the other being in Prov. 11:2, ואת צנועים חכמה). The Gemara (Sukkah 49b and Rashi there) explain this as referring to mitzvos done in public, like funerals and weddings; even these need to be done with ...


12

There are not very many references to Saul in the liturgy. Here is one that portrays him somewhat negatively, in the context of his failure to destroy Amalek (from Yotser for Zachor): זָכוֹר נָגִיד לְחָמְלוֹ הִסְכִּים. סָר מִמְּלוּכָה מִבֵּין נְסִיכִים. עוֹלֵל הַנּוֹתָר עָמַד לְשִׂכִּים: ‏ Remember the noble who agreed to have mercy on him [Agag]....


11

David's status after his anointing and before Shaul's death was actually, according to Megillah 14b, the subject of a halachic dispute between him and Avigayil. David himself held that he was a king for all purposes, and that therefore Naval (who had denied his men food and insulted him - I Sam. 25) was a rebel against the monarchy and could be put to death ...


7

This is a question asked by many commentators, so your wife is in good company :) I'll bring four of the above-mentioned commentators here: Rashi (Samuel 1, 17, 55) (partial) וכי לא היה מכירו והלא כתיב (לעיל טז כא) ויאהבהו מאד ויהי לו נושא כליו אלא ראהו מתנהג בטכסיסי מלכות אמר שאול אם בא ממשפחת פרץ...‏ Saul indeed knew who David was, but since he ...


7

Radak says "Ain Somchin al hanes" Do not rely on miracles. He also compares it to Yaakov being afraid that Eisav was coming, David fleeing from Shaul and other incidents In Pesachim 8b and Yoma 11a we are told that the protection during the mission is only if the danger is not imminent. In this case, Shmuel asked for natural means to protect himself ...


7

Shaul was great beyond the imagination of the people in his Generation (and how much more so ourselves) and cannot be Judged. Yalkut Shimoni Shmuel II 157: שגיון לדוד אשר שר לה' על דברי כוש בן ימיני (Tehilim,9,1), א"ל הקב"ה לדוד דוד שירה אתה אומר לפני על מפלת של שאול אלמלא אתה שאול והוא דוד אבדתי כמה דוד מפניו והיינו דכתיב שגיון לדוד אשר שר לה' על דברי ...


6

To begin with, Saul only ordered the execution of Achimelekh's Beit Av( Samuel I 22:16): ויאמר המלך, מות תמות אחימלך: אתה, וכל-בית אביך And the king said: 'Thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father's house.' The massacre at Nov was Doeg's own initiative( ibid. 22:18-19): ויאמר המלך, לדויג (לדואג), סב אתה, ופגע בכהנים; ויסב דויג (...


6

Like many other beliefs, Judaism doesn't have a clear opinion on the matter, but individual Jews do. Rashi, for example, believed in demons and gives that explanation of ruah raah in Eruvin 45b s.v. ruah ra'ah. Accordingly, Saul's possession by the ruah raah (I Samuel 16:14) would be a demonic possession. However, like most other things, there is not a ...


6

Sotah 37a-b In the book Ben Yehoyadah, Rabbi Yosef Hayyim mi-Baghdad's work on the aggadic portions of the Talmud, the author points out that the reward granted to both Yehudah and Binyamin are eternal rewards - the Jewish people's monarchy will always be from the house of King David, and the place of the Temple will always remain on Har Ha-Bayit in ...


5

The Midrash Rabbah (Noach 34:13) says אך להביא את החונק עצמו, יכול כשאול, ת"ל אך--in other words, the prohibition of suicide does not apply in the case of King Saul. Although the Midrash does not explain why the prohibition does not apply to the case of Saul, the simplest explanation would be fear of torture. This is the view cited in the Otzar ha-Geonim ...


5

Radak explains "His arms-bearer saw that Shaul dies" with i.e., close to death… but he did not die yet until the [reporter] killed him…. Alternatively, Radak continues, it's possible the [reporter] lied: he didn't kill him but found him dead after [Shaul] had fallen on his sword. He said [he'd killed Shaul] to appeal to David…. Ralbag (Ⅰ Sh'muel 31:4 ...


5

Ibn Ezra (Shemot 28:6 Peirush Aroch) suggests that someone who was familiar with asking through the Urim VeTumim would be capable of getting answers on occasion from the Ephod. (I think he is referring to the two stones on the shoulders that clipped to the Choshen, but I'm not sure.) Thus David used the Ephod (which we know he had, per 23:6) and Shaul used ...


5

If I understand him correctly, Alshich explains as follows. Shaul thought the words "והכיתה את עמלק", "smite Amalek", referred to the people, but not the king, who is referred to as "Amaleki" (see e.g. verses 3, 15, 20). He made this mistake because the yetzer hara was influencing him heavily so as to save his nation, Amalek (for the yetzer hara is the sar, ...


5

Rambam, The Laws of Kings and Wars, 3:8 (Chabad.org) Anyone who rebels against a king of Israel may be executed by the king… Shaul was considered righteous since he believed he was putting down a rebellion. The king may only execute people by decapitation. ……However, he may not confiscate property. If he does, it is considered theft. This is why ...


5

As mentioned, according to the pure Tanach, he was one year old. The Mefarshim don't really think this is meant to be interpreted factually, and so they have a number of ways to explain this, see Shmuel and Sabbahillel's answers. Edit: Never mind, they've been deleted. See Meafrshim here. Being that no one else seems to be quoting this, I would like to ...


4

After doing some digging this is what I've found 1 & 2 - What was pronounced was a 'Cherem' which, especially when done by a king, applies to people who are not present (assumedly it applies to anyone that the pronouncer has in mind). The source for this is the Ramban on Vayikrah 27:29 3 - most Rishonim learn that bread means all food 4 - there are many ...


4

And the men of Israel said, "Have you seen this man who is coming up, for he is coming up to taunt Israel? And it will be, that the man who will kill him, the King will enrich him with great riches, and he will give him his daughter, and he will make his father's house free in Israel." Rashi: "'And he will make his father’s house free': from the ...


4

I cannot improve on the other excellent examples, but I can provide an additional source (and one older than the others mentioned so far): עד שלא נבחר דוד היו כל ישראל כשרים למלכות. משנבחר דוד יצאו כל ישראל שנאמר הלא לכם לדעת כי ה' אלהי ישראל נתן את הממלכה לדוד וגו Until David was chosen, all Israel was suitable for the monarchy. Once David was ...


3

What about the fact that it is possible that David was king of ONLY Judah for 2 years and then remained in Hevron but was king over all of Israel for 5.5 more years before moving to Jerusalem? This seems like a likely idea given that Ish Boshet did not make a very good king and needed Avner to keep his kingship. If that is the case David became king 2 ...


2

The Mishbtzos Zahav posits that Shaul may have made the mistake that non Jews follow lineage maternially(see Kidushin 67b). If one looks closely at the passuk ,Shmuel says to Agag that he is going to make his mother childless just like he did. From this one can learn that Agag' s mother was still alive since she was not from Amalek. However, Shaul mistake ...


2

No one knows for sure since no reason is given in the text (the T'anach/the Bible). Therefore the question is open to conjecture within the commentaries and midrashim. @msh210 gives an answer from the commentaries of Rabbi Moshe Alshich. Another answer: it was "professional courtesy" -- while Saul was willing to kill the people, he decided to spare his ...


2

The Giv'onim wanted to kill him as revenge for him having killed them. See the full story in Samuel 2 chapter 21.


2

I think that Shmuel really was afraid that Shaul would kill him (Shmuel I 16:2): יֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵיךְ אֵלֵךְ וְשָׁמַע שָׁאוּל וַהֲרָגָנִי ס וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה עֶגְלַת בָּקָר תִּקַּח בְּיָדֶךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִזְבֹּחַ לַיהֹוָה בָּאתִי And Samuel said, "How shall I go? For, if Saul hears, he will kill me." And the Lord said, "You shall take a ...


2

I don't have sources at the moment, but I seem to recall that some explain that Saul had specific license to kill himself because of he would have been captured, a tremendous chillul Hashem would have followed. (Remember Samson's torture at the hand of the Philistines; something like that happening to the king of Israel would have been very bad)


2

Note that in I Shmuel 10:1 וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת פַּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּצֹק עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּשָּׁקֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא כִּי מְשָׁחֲךָ יְהֹוָה עַל נַחֲלָתוֹ לְנָגִיד: And Samuel took the vial of oil, and poured it on his head, and kissed him. And he said, "Indeed, the Lord has anointed you to be a ruler over His inheritance. This implies ...


2

Rashi (to Judges 17:1) notes that the final two stories of the Book of Judges actually took place chronologically at the beginning of the Book. He notes that the Idol of Micah was said to be around the entire span of the Tabernacle at Shiloh (Judges 18:31), and likewise the concubine at Gibeah, the story which you reference, occurred before Jerusalem was ...


2

Malbim to 19:24 (h/t Heshy) writes: על כן יאמרו רצה לומר בזה התחזק שנית המשל שהושם בפי כולם על כל המתנבא בלא הכנה, לאמר עליו הגם שאול בנביאים ”Therefore they say” - that is to say, with this the parable which was placed in everyone’s mouth regarding anyone who prophesied without preparation was strengthened a second time, to say about him, “Is Sha’ul ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible