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33

The reason is to exempt it from Value Added Tax. See the regulation at this www.gov.uk site. The important bit says: 4.7 Food and drink for religious and sacramental use The existence of religious laws requiring certain foods to be prepared in particular ways (for example, kosher or halal) doesn’t affect the liability of the final product, ...


15

The Gemara (Bava Batra 97b) says: סוחט אדם אשכול של ענבים ואומר עליו קידוש היום One can squeeze a cluster of grapes and say Kiddush on it. The Shulchan Aruch rules this way in OC 272:2 So it seems that letting the juice ferment is not a prerequisite for ritual use.


11

Tzitz Eliezer 12:38:2 concludes that there is no connection of Shemiras Shabbos with Havdala. Therefore even a Mechalel Shabbos can and should make Havdala.


11

The source is the last Mishna in the first chapter of Chullin. Rav Ovadiah of Bartenura explains that indeed we only have a Havdala ceremony when moving from a higher holiness to a lower holiness, and the reason we say "Bein Kodesh leKodesh" generically between Shabbat and Yom Tov and not something like "from a higher holiness to a lower holiness" is so as ...


10

I have heard the same rumour. I found the following by Rav Aviner. He was asked that whether the Kiddush cup of the Chafetz Chaim was like the measurement of Ha-Rav Chaim Naeh and not like that of the Chazon Ish.   His answer was This is brought by Ha-Rav Moshe Karp as testified by the Chafetz Chaim's grandson, Ha-Rav Hillel Zacks, the Rav of the ...


9

Red is described as preferable, though white is always acceptable if necessary. (Or perhaps even if it's a type of wine you strongly prefer.) During times of the blood libels, white wine was actually recommended for the seder as no one could claim you were hiding blood in your glass. For regular kiddush, the Gemara says you can use freshly-squeezed grapes. ...


8

The question of Kiddush on Yom Kippur is discussed first in the Gemara Eiruvin The Shibolei Haleket (312) writes that because one does not normally eat on Yom Kippur, the Sages never required mention of the holiday in kiddush or even bentching. In fact, making Kiddush would be improper because one might see kiddush being made and think that it should be ...


8

You cannot begin to recite Kiddush, drink 4 cups and eat matsa and maror before the night (exit of the stars, later than sunset). The time the Jews left Egypt was at night. And the korban Pesach and matsot were eaten at night. Further eating of pesach dorot was established by Tora as a night mitsva. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 472.1 אבל לא יאמר קידוש עד ...


8

This is a very old custom, which is cited in the Sefer Rokeach Hilkhot Shabat 49 by Eleazar of Worms.1 The meaning of the three is given by the Kaf haChayim in his commentary to Orach Chayim 268:34, saying that it refers to the three worlds (see here), the higher, the middle and the lower one: ובצרור המור ט"א על ג"פ נגד ג' עולמות עולם עליון ואמצעי ...


8

Two basic answers exist to this question: In reality, when the calendar was decided by testimony of the new moon, this phrase probably did not exist in the prayers. Maseches Sofrim 19:4 writes: בחג שבועות אומר ביום טוב מקרא קודש הזה וביום חג השבועות הזה וערבית שחרית ומנחה שוין בתפלות In fact, the Ritva (to Shabbos 86b) and Rivash (Shut no. 96) imply ...


7

Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayyim 269 rules that if one recites kiddush in a synagogue without a meal following it (where such is the custom) the adult making kiddush should not drink the wine but instead give it to a child to drink. Mishnah Berurah 269:1 writes that if no child is available, the adult reciting kiddush should make sure to drink a revi'it so that ...


7

Rav Yehoshua ibn Shu’ib, Rabbi Mordecai ben Abraham Benet, and the Mateh Moshe (Laws of Shavuot 690) explain that for this reason the more general word 'time' is used instead of the more precise 'day' (the term usually used to refer to a one day holiday), because it hasn't always been the exact day, but it always is in the general time frame of Matan Torah. ...


6

The rules of eating a meal in the same place one made or heard kidush are written among the rules of Friday night's kidush (and applied to both). Thus, the rule (Mishna B'rura 273:25) that cake suffices for this (so one need not immediately eat bread) applies to the nighttime as well as the daytime kidush. (However, even if he is famished during the day and ...


6

The Rosh ,based on the two sevaras given in Avoda Zara for the issur, explains that the issur of yayin nesech is not solely an issue of avoda zara but additionally an issue of mingling with non-Jews (משום בנותיהן). If this is so, he asks, why would mevushal wine be any less likely to cause mingling between jews and non-jews? He also asks even if one just ...


6

A person who eats on Yom Kipour does not make kiddush and have two challah rolls, plus meat and fish just as any other yom tov. The reason being that they should be eating as little as possible - just enough to keep alive & healthy. However, they do say יַעֲלֶה וְיָבֹא if they ate enough bread - as well as רְצֵה if it's also Shabbat. Enough bread: 27 ...


6

It's Shulchan Arukh OC 272:10 ברכת יין של קידוש פוטרת יין שבתוך הסעודה ואינו טעון ברכה לאחריו דברכת המזון פוטרתו בין שהוא על הכוס בין שאינו על הכוס.‏ The blessing on wine for Kiddush exempts wine during the meal [from needing a blessing before drinking] and the wine does not need a blessing afterwards for the blessings after bread exempt it, whether ...


6

The Beur Halacha says that beshaas hadechak, in pressing circumstances, when you make kiddush you can have in mind to eat in another room in the same building. He concludes that if you can see the other room, then in all circumstances it's fine, so long as you had in mind to eat there. My guess has always been that in certain shuls the Rabbi is concerned ...


5

The proper order of these blessings is a machloket between Rav and Rabba bar bar Chana on Sukkah 56a. Rav held the blessing on the Sukkah comes first because it's the obligation of the day and Rabba bar bar Chana held that Shehechiyanu comes first because it is Tadir = said more often. The Rambam (Sukkah 6:2) rules like Rav and Shulchan Aruch does likewise ...


5

Cantor Goffin refers to it as "Traditional / Corollary MiSinai", and therefore in his opinion, immutable. Not as iron-clad as something recorded by Maharil, "father of Ashkenazic custom", though. So I think that means we have no record of it from the 1400s, making it likely newer than that. Afraid I don't know when, though. Note that Cantor Goffin's ...


5

It has almost entirely to do with demand, cost, and volunteerism. At the Shul where I grew up, an Agudah-type, but unaffiliated Shul, there is a hot, sit-down Kiddush every week, and this has been the case for at least 30 years. Other Shuls in that area adopted various types of Kiddush (hot, cold, sit-down, buffet, etc.) over the years, almost entirely to ...


5

To the best of my knowledge each Shul makes their own decision, based on different factors such as cost, distance people have to walk, size of Congregation, time limits, etc. Foe example I have Davened in Shuls where the Rabbi wants to attract a crowd and supplies a Kiddush every week for that reason. There is a Shul that I Daven in that has a Kiddush ...


5

One should not taste any food before the morning kiddush (SA OC 289.1). The reason one can drink water before praying is that there is no obligation of kiddush before praying and water is not considered as food in this context. Therefore you can drink water until you finish praying shacharit (i.e., shmone esrei). Then the obligation of kiddush starts. As ...


5

The Ben Ish Chai explains his own position in Year 2 Parashat Bereishit #18 קידוש הלילה אינו תלוי בתפלת ערבית, שאם ירצה לקבל שבת מבעוד יום ולקדש ולאכול ולהתפלל ערבית בלילה, רשאי, ורק צריך שיתחיל לאכול חצי שעה קודם זמן קריאת-שמע; אבל קידוש היום תלוי בתפלה, דכל זמן שלא התפלל שחרית, לא חל עליו חובת קידוש; ולכן, ביום שבת בבוקר יוכל לשתות מים קודם תפלה, מפני ...


5

See Mishnah Brurah s.k. 4 that only uses that nullify its kedushah are prohibited. (In addition, I think that the rule of mitzvos lav lehanos nitnu - pleasure of a mitzvah is not considered pleasure - might be relevant here, especially as there is no physical pleasure from fulfilling the mitzvah of kiddush.)


5

Mishnah Berurah 269:2 explains that since the chazzan does not fulfill his kiddush obligation (as he is not eating his meal in the synagogue) he can’t drink the wine, because it is forbidden to eat or drink anything before kiddush. (This prohibition is discussed in Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 271:4.)


5

With Hashem's help I just found that R' Akiva Eiger in his commentary on Shulchan Aruch (OC 267:1 - או"ח רסו ס"ק א) asks this exact question, and he remains in doubt. "מסתפקנא אם אחר שלא קבל עליו שבת יכול להוציא לקדש למי שקבל עליו שבת, די"ל דלזה שלא קבל דהוא חול אצלו הוי כאינו מחוייב בדבר, כההיא דירושלמי הובא בתוספות יבמות דף י"ד בן עיר אינו יכול ...


5

The commentators talk about a practice like the one described on Shulchan Aruch 183:4. Though the distance of the fingertips isn't mentioned explicitly, Mishna B'rura, Magen Avraham and others cite the Sh'nei Luchos Hab'ris as a source (in turn citing earlier kabala) for sitting the cup on the palm with fingers erect. The Magen Avraham seems to think it ...


5

The reason many prefer to make their own Kiddush rather than be yotzei from the host is because of the dictum מצוה בו יותר מבשלוחו - it is preferable to perform a Mitzvah personally [based on Kiddushin 41]. (Pri Megadim, MZ 207) Others disagree, and claim that the above principle doesn't apply, because hearing Kiddush is better than regular שליחות, because ...


5

See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayyim 271:14 with Mishnah Berurah (especially paragraph 73) where it is explained that bedi’avad they fulfill their obligation of kiddush if they act in the way you have described.


5

Shulchan Arukh OC 483 מי שאין לו יין בליל פסח מקדש על הפת שמברך המוציא ובוצע ומניח ידיו עליו עד שגומר הקידוש ומברך על אכילת מצה ואוכל ואחר כך אוכל שאר ירקות ומסלק השלחן ואומר מה נשתנה וכל ההגדה עד גאל ישראל ומברך על המרור ואוכל ואחר כך כורך מצה ומרור ואוכל. One who doesn't have wine on Pesach night [takes the Matza, says Hamotzi, splits it, says Kiddush on ...


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