11

It has been used 11 times so far since the enactment of the fixed calendar in 4119. It was used in 4179, 4257, 4504, 4602, 4849, 5096, 5194, 5441, 5519, 5688, and 5766. The next time it will be used is 6013 if we still have a fixed calendar then. You can read about this exceedingly rare Dechiya and its history here.


8

For the first one: there's an Aramaic term עללתא, meaning "crop" or "harvest" (see Talmud, Nedarim 55a, and Targum Onkelos to Vayikra 25:3). Could be that the Akkadian cognate, if there is one, had an aleph instead of an ayin. (In fact, according to Wikipedia, Akkadian lacked an ayin sound.) For the second: the Aramaic word for "spy&...


8

You write that: It’s often said that when Hillel instituted the current calendar, he set an “expiration date” of 6000 AM; at that point the calendar would be invalid. Since Mashiach presumably will come by then (as per Sanhedrin 97a et. al.) the calendar doesn’t need to run farther than that. I think that this is a misunderstanding. What is actually said ...


6

The source of the Rambam is the Mishna, Rosh Hashana 2:7, and Rav Ovadia MiBartenura explains (based on the combination of Rav Pappa and Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak's opinions in the Gemara Rosh Hashana 24a) that the declaration is structured according to the verses in Vayikra 23 2 and 44. In verse 44, Moshe declares the holidays, and thus the start of the ...


5

M'leches Sh'lomo to Sh'kalim 3:3 cites a R. Y'hosef as saying that that's simply how people speak: כן הוא דרך הדבור שהשואל אומר הדבור פעם אחת והמשיב משיב לו שני פעמים וכדומה לזה מצינו גבי קדוש החדש במס׳ ר״ה ראש ב״ד אומר מקודש וכל העם עונין אחריו מקודש מקודש וכן דרך בני אדם לדבר שאחד אומר לחברו וכי דבר זה יפה בעיניך והוא משיב יפה יפה וכדומה לזה יש בדברי ...


3

The answer is well implied in the first 2 paragraphs of the Halachot you quote, namely that we are using 24 hour days and 60 minute hours, not sha'ot z'mani'ot. Rambam KidushHachodesh 6:1 states: ...The first level of these calculations represent approximations of the time of the conjunction, and their accuracy is not great. This approximation of the time ...


3

Note the Netziv is not quoted as saying Hillel sanctified the calendar only until year 6000. As we discussed in the comments here, this might not have any source at all, and might be a confusion with the often-repeated idea that Mashiach will become before the end of the sixth millenium (based on Zohar and others, see e.g., here). The Netziv is quoted here ...


3

Rambam, Kiddush haChodesh, 2:9 ראוהו בית דין עצמן, בסוף יום תשעה ועשרים--אם עדיין לא יצא כוכב בליל שלושים--בית דין אומרים מקודש מקודש, שעדיין יום הוא. ואם ראוהו בליל שלושים, אחר שיצאו שני כוכבים--למחר מושיבין שני דיינין אצל אחד מהם, ויעידו הם השניים בפני השלושה; ויקדשוהו השלושה.‏. If the court itself saw [the new moon] at the end of day 29 -- if a ...


3

What I have been told, by people who have seen this many times, is that every Rosh Chodesh, Rav Ariel of Machon Hamikdash, who is on the "Sanhedrin", goes up to Har Habayis with a couple of others and says some sort of Kiddush Hachosesh. They do this on Rosh Chodesh according to the fixed calendar, which is often before the new moon can be seen. (This is ...


2

I think there are a few factors that significantly mitigate the magnitude of the problem: As indicated in comments by DoubleAA, most of Israel's major fruit crops' harvest seasons are not in Shevat-time. See, for example, this contemporary calendar, which lists months between June and October for figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates. (It says "year-round" ...


2

Why would (i.e. I'm looking for possible reasons for the mitzvah) we have to sanctify the month via eyewitness testimony? It seems imprecise and also introduces a lot of extra bother into the entire process! The eyewitness testimony is a lot discussed in the Hassidic literature. As far as I understood, Rabbi Levy Ytsh'ak miBerditchov in his Kedoushat Levy ...


2

The Rambam is trying to explain how the end of the year "drifts" across the days of the week. The lunar year (twelve lunar months) is roughly 354.3 days. 350 is divisible by seven (hence "groups of seven"), so the only thing that decides what day of the week the year ends on is the remainder. --- the extra 4.3 days. Thus, if the end of the previous year ...


1

There's the statement (e.g. in Rosh Hashana 19b) that since the era of Ezra the month of Elul has always had 29 days. והאמר רבי חיננא בר כהנא א''ר מימות עזרא ואילך לא מצינו אלול מעובר


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