18

Yonatan ben Uziel, Radak, Metzudat David, and Ibn Ezra say that the sign is outlined in verse 15. Yonatan Ben Uziel says on verse 15 and 16 the child is used as a time stamp of sorts. Basically deliverance from the two oppressing monarchy will end and the land will prosper before the child matures, and can distinguish between good and bad. It is possible ...


12

Your question has been asked before by traditional commentators (e.g., Radak). artscroll translates the end of 43:10 before Me nothing was created by a god, nor will there be after Me! and comments based on Radak and Mahari Kara This is addressed to idolaters, who believed that there was another divine being. Isaiah repudiates the notion that there ...


9

Since the question presented in the title is a very broad one, I will focus on the more specific one presented in the text while touching upon other issues. The question asked was why it is so significant that a young woman will bear a child, implying that the issue is too mundane to be a "sign". Such a question, although understandable, ...


8

The verse in Deuteronomy is a halachik prohibition for a descendent of the 12 tribes to marry a man with specific types of injuries to his genitals. That is the full extent of the law and the injured man is certainly considered fully part of the community for all other halachot. The verse in Isaiah is a consolation and an assurance that one's continuity and ...


8

This is not a literal meaning but the way people speak. We still speak of "sunrise" and "sunset". The idiom of "the four corners", means the farthest away that one can go in any direction. One example can be seen in Megillas Esther when it refers to מהודו ועד קוש One of the possible explanations is that they were next to each other and he ruled from the far ...


8

A messianic interpretation of the "suffering servant" passages was known in Jewish tradition, as you point out from Sanhedrin 98b. This interpretation is also found in the Targum on the verse, as well as Midrash Tanchuma, Toledot 14. In other words, this has been interpreted as a passage about the Messiah for a long time. This isn't the only place that a ...


7

The Hebrew for "our reproach" is "חֶרְפָּתֵנוּ" (a contraction of "חֶרְפָּה שֶׁלָנוּ"), which is more accurately translated as "our disgrace" or "our degradation."1 A number of classic commentators (including Rashi and Radak, ad loc.) cite a midrash that says Nevuchadnetzar allowed his soldiers to rape any unmarried women. The many Jewish war widows thus ...


7

The text of 1QIsaᵃ (The so-called "Great Isiah Scroll") is very close to the masoretic text (M). Most of the differences are orthographic. 1QIsaᵃ usually is fuller, employing more matres lectionis (e.g. כי in M vs. כיא in 1QIsaᵃ in verse 1:2). Other small differences exist due to pronunciation (e.g. עוזיהו in M and עיזיה in 1QIsaᵃ in verse 1:1). Letters or ...


7

To answer the first part of your question, yes the sages discussed the authorship of Isaiah, and he did not write his own book. See here Bava Bathra 15a Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote (Mnemonic YMSHK) Isaiah,  Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes. Rashi explains that the prophets would write their prophecies at the end of their lives and ...


7

Rashi quotes the Targum Yonatan and says that "naked" doesn't mean literally naked naked: (עָרוֹם). Jonathan renders: פְּחֵיחַ, with torn and worn out clothing, but not actually naked. Other commentators mention that it was symbolic or that he was actually only naked for a brief time, in his own house.


7

The full quote from the Ritva is very interesting, but also makes your question a non question. תשעה נטלו חזירים. יש שפירשו עמלק כדכתיב בו יכרסמנה חזיר מיער ועליהם אמרו בהגדה למה נקרא שמו חזיר שעתיד הקב"ה להחזירו לישראל לעתיד לבוא. ואין צורך לכך כי בספר הטבעים כתב שהצרעת ונגעים בחזירים הרבה בטבע: Regarding the 9 out of ten measures of tzaraas in the ...


6

None of the words in the verse that imply divinity imply so absolutely. Thus, using the structure of the verse in your question is perfectly compatible with Jewish beliefs. ויקרא שמו פלא יועץ אל גבור אבי עד שר שלום... Concerning אל: see Gen 31:29 where אל means power, (See Onkelos the Convert's aramaic translation, חילא‏, power or strength, see also ...


6

Da'as Mikra identifies it as Aswan. Apparently it had an ancient name like S'vene, and is meant in context to represent the southerly direction. In the footnote on that explanation an opinion is cited that this was the land occupied by descendants of K'na'an known as the Sini, but that its location was too close to home to fit in context of these p'sukim/...


6

R. Yaakov Tzvi Mecklenburg in HaKetav vehaKabbalah, Shemot 24:12 writes: שרש צו מצאנוהו גם על התחברות והתאחדות שני דברים יחד, כמו צו לצו קו לקו (ישעי' כ"ח) שהוא לד"ק חבור אל חבור We have also found the root צו relating to connecting and uniting two things together, like 'צו לצו קו לקו' (Yeshayahu 28) which means, according to some, one connection to ...


6

Isaiah 66:23 Radak and Metzudas David (ad loc.) interpret "כל בשר" as including non-Jews too. However this is does not indicate that they will keep Shabbos, or that they may keep Shabbos. It merely indicates that they will also come to the Temple to bow before Hashem. The Jews will walk, and the non-Jews can drive!


6

The Hebrew text of Isaiah 52:14 reads מִשְׁחַת MIShḤAT, which is a noun meaning marring or disfigurement (see the BDB dictionary). This derives from the root שחת, which carries meanings like decay, destruction, corruption; the מ of משחת is part of the form of the noun (ie. there are nouns formed from root letters XYZ that look like miXYaZ, where in this case,...


5

Isaiah (58:2): וְאוֹתִי, יוֹם יוֹם יִדְרֹשׁוּן, וְדַעַת דְּרָכַי, יֶחְפָּצוּן; כְּגוֹי אֲשֶׁר-צְדָקָה עָשָׂה, וּמִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהָיו לֹא עָזָב, יִשְׁאָלוּנִי מִשְׁפְּטֵי-צֶדֶק, קִרְבַת אֱלֹהִים יֶחְפָּצוּן The Yerushalmi Rosh Hashana (4:8) says: ואותי יום יום ידרושון זו תקיעה וערבה The reference is to the Aravah ceremony which was performed on the day ...


5

I'm not sure what light you want shed on this other than not to trust the Mikraot Gedolot for fine issues of proper nusach hamikra. The Aleppo, Leningrad, Bodmer, Damascus, and Cairo Codices (9th to 12th centuries) all have a כ. Bomberg's Mikraot Gedolot (2nd edition, 16th century, seen below) has a ב. Bomberg's edition is notorious for small errors, but its ...


5

Thanks to JoelK for pointing to this answer on MY which mentions the gemara in Brachot 11b which already points out the same issue. On that gemara, artscroll comments The reason for this deviation is that it is not fitting to praise God by saying that He creates evil; we therefore do not specifically mention the creation of evil, but speak in general ...


5

It's true, the plain definition of the verse in Isaiah 50:6 seems like it can be interpreted similar to the idea of "turn the other cheek": גֵּוִי֙ נָתַ֣תִּי לְמַכִּ֔ים וּלְחָיַ֖י לְמֹֽרְטִ֑ים פָּנַי֙ לֹ֣א הִסְתַּ֔רְתִּי מִכְּלִמּ֖וֹת וָרֹֽק׃ I offered my back to the floggers, And my cheeks to those who tore out my hair. I did not hide my face ...


4

As a strict language question, that should be asked on Hebrew.SE, which is where I think the question is coming from. From a Jewish perspective, it refers to the "my people" in that sentence. From a strict language point of view, it could arguably be ambiguous (מו - the suffix is sometimes singular if the context indicates it), however according to all of ...


4

The Shai LaMorah, on Tannah D'vei Eliyahu Zuta 20:6, explains that Hashem will reveal yet-unknown reasons for the Mitzvos and the Torah. Our newfound understanding of the reasons will make it seem as if there's a new Torah. He cites the Iyun Tefillah on the yotzer of Parshas Hachodesh.


4

See the Malbim on that verse in ישעיה פרק-ב דבר ה' הוא הנבואה, ותורה היא תורת משה Firstly he teaches defines the words: Dvar Hashem refers specifically to prophecy. Torah refers to the Torah, as we know it. Then he explains the verse in detail: תצא תורה, לכל העולם כמ''ש כי יפלא ממך דבר למשפט וכו' וקמת ועלית וכו', וזה היה רק בציון, ודבר ה', הוא דבר ...


4

The nation of Israel. http://outreachjudaism.org/gods-suffering-servant-isaiah-53/ As per that website, that has been the position of Jews for a long time Origen, a prominent and influential church father, conceded in the year 248 CE – eight centuries before Rashi was born – that the consensus among the Jews in his time was that Isaiah 53 “bore reference ...


4

The gemara in Sanhedrin 94a says this is an allusion to Hashem's desire to make Chizkiyahu moshiach which was 'closed off' and did not happen. א"ר תנחום דרש בר קפרא בציפורי מפני מה כל מ"ם שבאמצע תיבה פתוח וזה סתום ביקש הקב"ה לעשות חזקיהו משיח וסנחריב גוג ומגוג אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע ומה דוד מלך ישראל שאמר כמה שירות ותשבחות לפניך לא עשיתו משיח ...


4

Ibn Ezra on Yeshaya 65:24 writes: לפי דעתי כי טרם כמו עוד, ואם בא בתוספת בי״ת כמו קודם I understand that טרם means 'while', but if it is preceded by a ב, then it means 'before'. So, if Rambam reads this verse like Ibn Ezra there is no problem. והיה טרם יקראו ואני אענה means 'While they are calling out, I will answer', not 'before they will call out'....


4

The shirah he sang was about his recovery, not about the defeat of Sancheriv. Yalkut Shimoni (Nach 243, end) actually says that Hashem had to force the issue by making Chizkiyahu fall sick, so that at least he would say shirah for that: כשעלה סנחריב עליו הפילו האלקים לפניו הוה ליה למימר שירה על מפלתו ולא אמר, ומה היה לו הפילו האלקים במטה וחלה כדי שיאמר ...


4

Look back to 14:4: וְנָשָׂאתָ הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה, עַל-מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל--וְאָמָרְתָּ: אֵיךְ שָׁבַת נֹגֵשׂ Proclaim this allegory concerning the King of Babylon: how the oppressor has stopped! So the next few verses are all metaphors for the King of Babylon (a flesh-and-blood person). There's a consistent pattern of "you were so mighty, but not anymore", ...


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