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In Rabbinical literature, the expression "קיבל ממישהו" does not mean literally "was his disciple" but "received his heritage" or "followed his teachings" like in Avos 1: "אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אִישׁ סוֹכוֹ קִבֵּל מִשִּׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. Antigonus a man of Socho received [the oral tradition] from Shimon the Righteous. Chronologically it appears that there are ...


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Reflecting long enough to consider what it means to be the Founder of our faith, which is also called the Way of G-d, you will have your answer. The word Founder in English comes from the verb found which according to the New Oxford American Dictionary means: To establish or originate something especially by providing an endowment. This same dictionary ...


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You asked: At what point in Jewish history did waiting 6 hours between milk and meat become the uniform approach in most communities (or in some places 1 hour or 3 hours)? According to this article it was the Rif (Rabbi Yitzchak Alfasi 1013-1103) who instituted the fixed waiting time. Read the article for sources and background.


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Originally, the word "Yehudi" meant someone from the Tribe of Judah. When Solomon's Kingdom split into two territories (Israel and Judah), "Yehudi" came to mean someone from the Land of Judah, regardless of tribal affiliation. We see how Mordechai, who was from the Tribe of Benjamin, was called a "Yehudi", simply because he was among the exiles in Babylon ...


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The matter is unlikely to be known. There is a story in the Talmud [Kiddushin 71a] about a rabbi who said he could spot bastards on sight, but would never say anything because some great rabbis are among them. This was later codified by the Rema (on Shulchan Aruch Even Ha-Ezer 2.5): If an unfit person is mixed in a particular family, then once it has ...


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Today is Yom Hashoah here in Israel and here are a couple of important [yet unspoken and unpopular] lessons on this topic: G-d and the Torah invented and popularized the idea that for the purpose of making the world better some [bad of course] nations must be exterminated in this way or another. The Egyptians, the 7 nations, the Amalekites? The world would ...


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TL;DR: For certain types of scenarios (ie a murderer) Rabbinic courts would be able to carry out executions whenever the situation would arise... but they wouldn't kill via one of 4 methods of capital punihments, rather they'd kill via an "indirect" manner. While the mishnah in Makkos (1:10) that you cited does state that "a court that executes one person ...


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The Gemara on the Mishnah you quoted says that since the verse asks for "ziknei ha'eer" (elders of the city), it means members of a Court of 23 Judges. (See also Rambam, Hilchos Rotzeach 9:4, who says a Court of 23 Judges.) Therefore it won't suffice to have a Court of 3 Rabbis. The Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvah 531) explains that the calf ceremony is for ...


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Yachin there: אשה לאו בת מלחמה. רק לספק מזון ולתקן הדרכים אף היא יוצאת. ‏ A woman is not able to combat, she did only provide food and repair roads.


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In his commentary to Rambam's codification of this law (Hilchot Melachim 7:5), R. David Ibn Zimra asks: ברייתא כלשון רבינו אלא דקשה וכי דרך הנשים לעשות מלחמה דקתני וכלה מחופתה והא כתיב כל כבודה בת מלך פנימה וי"ל דה"ק כיון דחתן יוצא מחדרו כלה יוצאה מחופתה שאינה נוהגת ימי חופה ואפשר דבמלחמת מצוה הנשים היו מספקות מים ומזון לבעליהן וכן המנהג היום בערביות Is ...


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A little town hasn't Bet Din. See Sanhedrin Mishna 1.6 And how many [inhabitants] must a city have before it may have a Sanhedrin? One hundred and twenty. Rabbi Nechemiah says, two hundred and thirty, [each judge] corresponding to a chief of a group of ten. Bartenura מאה ועשרים - מפרש בגמרא, עשרים ושלשה, סנהדרי קטנה. twenty three for the ...


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Before Matan Torah (children of Israel received G-ds Torah at mount sinai) and in the future after Moshiach comes the age of accountability was/will be at 100 yeas old as Rashi Bereishis 5,32 in the name of the Midrash Rabba quotes from Yishaya 65,20: אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן: מַה טַּעַם כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת הוֹלִידוּ לְמֵאָה שָׁנָה וְזֶה לַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת? אָמַר ...


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Assuming that the comission of the Setuagint was accomplished around 250 BCE, It is just possible that indeed around the year 200 before the Common Error (BCE) there could have been other privately owned circulating copies of the Septuagint, probably not for their use in a Jewish synagogue, thus non kosher, but none has been found so far and that does not ...


2

I know of a number of approaches to evolution vs creation in Jewish thought. As far as I can tell, it seems that an insistence on the Torah giving literal history with it being roughly 5,769 years since ex nihilo, became more popular after the scientific challenges of the past two centuries, not less. As though we dug in our heels in the face of so many ...


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The Tosfos Yom Tov explains that the very fact that woman wouldn't go out at night on their own out of fear, led them to form groups in order to provide safety in numbers, where they would be able to spin flax at night at times of the month when the moon was bright enough to use it's light. Inevitably once together, any rumors about local bad behavior would ...


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