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14

In his commentary to Rambam's codification of this law (Hilchot Melachim 7:5), R. David Ibn Zimra asks: ברייתא כלשון רבינו אלא דקשה וכי דרך הנשים לעשות מלחמה דקתני וכלה מחופתה והא כתיב כל כבודה בת מלך פנימה וי"ל דה"ק כיון דחתן יוצא מחדרו כלה יוצאה מחופתה שאינה נוהגת ימי חופה ואפשר דבמלחמת מצוה הנשים היו מספקות מים ומזון לבעליהן וכן המנהג היום בערביות Is ...


12

Most commentaries render this as some sort of thorny bush (see Rashi, Ibn Ezra). In terms of identifying which exact species it may have been, a great resource is Rabbi Kaplan's Living Torah commentary to Exodus 3:2, which states: S'neh in Hebrew. This is most probably the black raspberry (rubus sanctus), which has berries that turn red and then black (...


11

Several events are listed in chapter 13 of Megilat Ta'anit: The Jews in the wilderness were decreed to die in the wilderness and not enter Israel. The First Temple was destroyed. The Second Temple was destroyed. The city of Beitar was conquered. The City was razed. בתשעה באב נגזר על אבותינו שלא יכנסו לארץ וחרב הבית בראשונה ובשניה נלכדה ביתר ונחרשה העיר ...


10

Here are additional events to the ones already noted in other answers Expulsion from England (1290): The Jews of England were expelled by King Edward I (chabad.org) French expulsion (1306): The Jews were expelled from France (from here) Spanish Expulsion (1492): The Jews of Spain were expelled by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella on the 9th of Av of 1492, ...


10

R. Yehuda Ayash points out that there are contradictory passages in the Zohar. In Parshat Vayikra it says that the Binding of Isaac took place on Rosh Hashanah, while in Parshat Vayeitzei it implies that it took place on Yom Kippur. He says that further analysis is required to reconcile the two passages: Mateh Yehuda O.C. 584:2 קורין וה' פקד וכו' כתב הר"...


10

The painting is called Eine Streitfrage aus dem Talmud (A Talmudic Dispute) by Carl Schleicher. It was painted sometime during the 19th Century in Germany. Here are some other works by him. I could not find much about him on English webpages, but here is a Wikipedia article in Spanish.


9

On Chazal there is a series of books by R Binyamin Lau on Jewish sages (from Koren), vol 1 on the Second Temple period, vol 2 on Yavne to Bar Kochba, vol 3 on the Galilean period, vol 4 on the period from the Mishna to the Talmud. On later and contemporary acharonim, there have been 3 compilations of the biographical sketches originally published in the ...


9

Yachin there: אשה לאו בת מלחמה. רק לספק מזון ולתקן הדרכים אף היא יוצאת. ‏ A woman is not able to combat, she did only provide food and repair roads.


8

The Ramchal's beardless face is referenced in several letters among the Italian rabbinic communities of the 18th century, all of which are part of the general controversy that escalated after the Ramchal's assertion of learning through a maggid and his teachings of kabbalah, both activities that led some to suspect him of being a secret follower of Shabbetai ...


8

The musar movement is mostly associated with Rabbi Yisra'el Salanter and his students. There is a lot that could be said about it, but I will write mostly about the more controversial aspects and differences in Jewish practice, rather than, for example, psychological insights. Rabbi Yisra'el advocated taking the time to learn works of musar. Already in his ...


8

Bartenura to Mishnah Yadayim 4:6 explains the name as follows: פרושים. לחכמי ישראל היו קורין פרושים, לפי שאוכלין חוליהן בטהרה ופרושים ממגע עם הארץ, דתנן בגדי עם הארץ מדרס לפרושים: To the Sages of Israel [the Tzedukim] would call Perushim [lit. “those who separate”], for they would eat their non-sacred food in purity and separate from touching Amei Ha’...


8

According to the Midrash Tanchuma (Lech Lecha #8) the Dead Sea apparently became salty due to the sins of those involved in the war of the four kings against the five kings. הוא ים המלח שבעונם נעשה אותו עמק למים מלוחים וכן הוא אומר ארץ פרי למלחה למה מרעת יושבי בה It is the Dead sea, for in their sins that valley was made into salty waters. And so it ...


8

Yevamos (62b): שנים עשר אלף זוגים תלמידים היו לו לרבי עקיבא מגבת עד אנטיפרס וכולן מתו בפרק אחד מפני שלא נהגו כבוד זה לזה והיה העולם שמם עד שבא ר"ע אצל רבותינו שבדרום ושנאה להם ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ורבי שמעון ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע והם הם העמידו תורה אותה שעה Rabbi Akiva had twelve thousand pairs of students in an area of land that stretched from ...


8

Two basic answers exist to this question: In reality, when the calendar was decided by testimony of the new moon, this phrase probably did not exist in the prayers. Maseches Sofrim 19:4 writes: בחג שבועות אומר ביום טוב מקרא קודש הזה וביום חג השבועות הזה וערבית שחרית ומנחה שוין בתפלות In fact, the Ritva (to Shabbos 86b) and Rivash (Shut no. 96) imply ...


7

Rambam states explicitly in the first paragraph of his introduction to Sefer Hamitzvot that the Commentary to the Mishnah came first: After having completed our previous well-known work wherein we included a commentary to the whole Mishnah – our goal in that work having been satisfied with the explanation of the substance of each and every Halacha in ...


7

R. Benet's son, R. Naftali, wrote in a letter (Misped Gadol Ve'kaved Meod, here) to the Nikolsburg community that his father died in Carlsbad while there for therapeutic reasons (ibid, note). He then goes on to report that his father asked that he be buried in Nikolsburg, his home town, or at least in Prague, however, the city authorities did not permit the ...


7

Heinrich Himmler received the formal command from the Nazi Party to initiate the Final Solution, an order which resulted in millions of Jewish deaths. This happened on Tisha B'Av in 5701, which corresponds to August 2, 1941 on the Gregorian calendar. (Source)


7

According to this article (and this one), until not too long ago there was a practice of writing one’s name directly on the wall. This is where the modern practice of writing a note comes. The first article quotes the twelfth-century traveler Benjamin of Tudela, who writes that in the central house of prayer in Jerusalem at that time, Shaar Rachamim - as ...


7

R. Menachem M. Kasher compiled such a bibliographic list in his Sare HaElef (Section 4), some of which is available here for free (though not the section you’re looking for).


7

The Tosfos Yom Tov explains that the very fact that woman wouldn't go out at night on their own out of fear, led them to form groups in order to provide safety in numbers, where they would be able to spin flax at night at times of the month when the moon was bright enough to use it's light. Inevitably once together, any rumors about local bad behavior would ...


7

In Melachim II, chapter 22 during the time of King Josiah the High Priest Hilkiah found the "scroll of the law" in the temple. This chapter does not imply that it was necessarily the only such copy of the law (and it's not clear whether it refers to the whole or only part of the Torah), but from the reaction of the king we can infer that its contents were ...


7

Rav Yehoshua ibn Shu’ib, Rabbi Mordecai ben Abraham Benet, and the Mateh Moshe (Laws of Shavuot 690) explain that for this reason the more general word 'time' is used instead of the more precise 'day' (the term usually used to refer to a one day holiday), because it hasn't always been the exact day, but it always is in the general time frame of Matan Torah. ...


7

Indeed, this is the same person. The entry for "David ben Solomon ibn Zimra (Radbaz)" in The Responsa Literature states: He conducted a large yeshiba and many famous scholars were his pupils. The great talmudic author, Bezalel Ashkenazi, was one of them; and Isaac Luria, the world-famous kabbalist, was another. As for your impression about devoting his ...


6

This question is addressed by R. Yosef Karo in his commentary to this statement of Rambam. He says that according to Rambam it is possible that Achiyah was a greater scholar than Dovid, but the chain of transmission of the tradition is not necessarily determined by the greatest scholar. In terms of the order of transmission, Achiyah comes after Dovid: ...


6

The idea that according to the technical law it is a reshut but that it has now been accepted as a chovah goes back at least to R. Isaac Alfasi: Rif Berachot 27b: והאידנא נהוג עלמא לשוייה חובה A century later Rambam already says that this was the custom among all Jews everywhere: Hilchot Tefilah 1:6 ואין תפלת ערבית חובה כתפלת שחרית ומנחה ואף ע"פ כן ...


6

This is mentioned in the Sefer Minhagim of Maharil (Hilchos Shofar # 13). The reason given there is that it lets people know that the set of shofar blasts has been completed: אמר מהר"י סג"ל דלהכי מאריכין בתקיעה אחרונה ונקראת תקיעה גדולה למען ישמעו העם וידעו שסיימו הקולות ויאמרו אשרי העם יודעי תרועה Additionally, this very question was asked to R. Chaim ...


6

The Talmud (Menachot 35a) says: תנא: תפילין מרובעות - הלכה למשה מסיני. אמר רב פפא: בתפרן ובאלכסונן. לימא מסייע ליה: העושה תפילתו עגולה - סכנה ואין בה מצוה; אמר רב פפא: מתני' דעבידא כי אמגוזא.‏ It is taught in a baraita: The requirement that phylacteries be square is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Rav Pappa says about this halakha: ...


6

The Mishnah in Taanit 4:6 reports that the Jews had five calamities on the 17th of Tammuz, the second was that the tamid offering was not brought anymore, and the Temple was eventually destroyed on the 9th of Av. On Taanit 28b the Sages discuss, whether this refers to the First (587 BCE) or the Second Temple (70 CE), and they conclude that it was the Second ...


6

In Berachot 23a the Sanhedrin ruled that tefillin must not be brought in a bathroom. So people would leave them outside. But they frequently got stolen. So the Sanhedrin reversed its ruling.


6

The Book of Samuel only tells us of King Shaul having had 1 wife and 1 concubine. Shaul's wife (I Samuel 14:50): וְשֵׁם֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת שָׁא֔וּל אֲחִינֹ֖עַם בַּת־אֲחִימָ֑עַץ וְשֵׁ֤ם שַׂר־צְבָאוֹ֙ אֲבִינֵ֔ר בֶּן־נֵ֖ר דּ֥וֹד שָׁאֽוּל׃ The name of Saul’s wife was Ahinoam daughter of Ahimaaz; and the name of his army commander was Abiner son of Saul’s uncle ...


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