The Aruch Hashulchan Yore Dea 361,4 says that even if the person buried is ignorant of Torah everyone should stop working in his honour, and for someone who has learnt Torah we stop learning in order to attend his Levaya.
ודע דזה שנתבאר דלמאן דלא קרי ולא תני אין מבטלין מתלמוד תורה כשיש מתעסקים כדי צרכו – זהו רק מתלמוד תורה. אבל משארי מלכות – צריכים להתבטל ...
The Challenge of Creation by R. Natan Slifkin
Torah, Chazal, and Science by R. Moshe Meiselman
These two books contain very different approaches; in fact, the latter may be considered largely a rebuttal to the former. Between the two of them, you should be able to cover the main approaches.
Immortality, Resurrection and the Age of the Universe: A Kabbalistic View by Rabbi Kaplan discusss many of these topics.
See the table of contents:
The age of the universe
Longevity and immortality in Judaic sources
On the resurrection
Astrology: stars and angles
Male and female
Let us start by outlining three simple, basic observations:
Secular historians place the first year of Darius in 423 BCE.
Traditional Jewish reckoning places the destruction of the Second Jerusalem Temple in 68 CE, which does indeed differ mildly from the scholarly accepted date of 70 CE.
From 423 BCE until 68 CE there are precisely 490 years (...