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8

A Midrash in Vayikra Rabba (23:10) teaches: שְׁלשָׁה הֵם שֶׁבָּרְחוּ מִן הָעֲבֵרָה וְשִׁתֵּף הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁמוֹ עִמָּהֶם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: יוֹסֵף וְיָעֵל וּפַלְטִי. יוֹסֵף מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פא, ו): עֵדוּת בִּיהוֹסֵף שָׂמוֹ, מַהוּ בִּיהוֹסֵף יָהּ מֵעִיד עָלָיו... יָעֵל מִנַיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ד, יח): וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרַאת ...


7

The Sdei Chemed (vol. 9, Klalei HaPoskim 10:2) delineates the order of authority and reverse chronology as follows: Shu"t HaRashba Torat HaBayit / Avodat HaKodesh / Piskei Challah / Shaar HaMayim Chiddushei HaRashba He does bring a Pri Megadim who considers the possibility that certain Teshuvot were written prior to the Torat HaBayit and leaves it ...


6

The Challenge of Creation by R. Natan Slifkin Torah, Chazal, and Science by R. Moshe Meiselman These two books contain very different approaches; in fact, the latter may be considered largely a rebuttal to the former. Between the two of them, you should be able to cover the main approaches.


5

What you were reading was the English translation of the complete works of Josephus by William Whiston. It was published by Kregel Publications in 1960 and the last edition in 1984. Whiston’s translation was published by William P. Nimmo of Edinburgh, Scotland in 1867. The footnote you remember was in Antiquities of the Jews, book 3, chapter 7:6. Whiston ...


4

It is likely a transliteration issue. He must be R Yom Tov of Joigny. Artscroll Tosfot describes him as the author of piyutim [Omnam Kein of the Yom Kippur evening service is one of his compositions], and disciple of Rabbeinu Tam. His Wikipedia entry is here.


4

Yes, as the pressure of Rome bore down upon Bar Kochba he began to suspect that the sages had turned on him and were looking to make peace with the Romans. This occurred after he became very arrogant and the sages began to lose faith in his piety. After it appeared Beitar would be lost to the Romans, Bar Kochba accused Rabbi Elazar of being a spy and ...


3

There are many synagogues known to have existed in the Second Temple period both from literature and archaeology (see lists on Hebrew and English Wikipedia). So the question isn't whether they existed, but more what purpose they served. This subject is addressed in Ezra Fleischer's article "On the Beginnings of Obligatory Jewish Prayer" (in Hebrew), ...


2

Tosfos pesachim 5a: דברי ר' ישמעאל - תימה לר"י דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל נפקא ליה מקרא אחרינא ובכמה דוכתין פריך מר' ישמעאל אתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל The Maharam explains Tosfos's question: ד"ה דברי ר' ישמעאל וכו' ובכמה דוכתי פריך מרבי ישמעאל אתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ר"ל א"כ משמע דחד תנא הוא This could be a proof that he was the tanna - r' yishmael


2

Contrary to another answer to this question an answer provided to a related question explains that there have been a large number of textual changes to the Torah over time. These changes often seem to be scribal errors. There are some indications that either the Men of the Great Assembly or perhaps Chazal (the Rabbinic sages) emended some words in the Torah ...


2

Stam, Cleopatra is mentioned other times in gemara (avodo zara 8b, nida 30b) and there it is clear that its talking about the last ruler of Egypt before the Romans appointed a governor over Egypt. this is the lashon of rashi in avoda zara 8b: בימי קלפטרא מלכתא - של אלכסנדריא כדאמר בהמפלת במסכת נדה (דף ל:) ונלחמו רומיים עמה ונצחוה ותפסו הם המלוכה


2

Here are 3 books not already mentioned which are highly relevant and which I appreciated Gerald Schroeder: The Science of God: The Convergence of Scientific and Biblical Wisdom (2009) which "demonstrates the surprising parallels between a variety of Biblical teachings and the findings of biochemists, paleontologists, astrophysicists, and quantum physicists. ...


2

Immortality, Resurrection and the Age of the Universe: A Kabbalistic View by Rabbi Kaplan discusss many of these topics. See the table of contents: The age of the universe Longevity and immortality in Judaic sources On the resurrection Astrology: stars and angles Male and female


2

Its depends when you hold the story of yetzias mitzraim accured. according to the scholars that it happened in the times of rammses then there are no records of egypts collapse after yetzias mitzraim. but according to egyptologist david rohl (who brings back the date a few hundred years. this view is explained in a documenty called: patterns of evidence - ...


2

Not a concrete source, but there is well known information about Rav Papa’s children: חַנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא, רַמִי בַּר פַּפָּא, נַחְמָן בַּר פַּפָּא, אַחַאי בַּר פַּפָּא, אַבָּא בַּר פַּפָּא, רַפֽרַם בַּר פַּפָּא, רָכִיש בַּר פַּפָּא, סוֹרְחָב בַּר פַּפָּא, אַדָא בַּר פַּפָּא, דָרוֹ בַּר פַּפָּא This was not even all of his children per se (See here). ...


1

On average the last day of Chanukah is on 3 Tevet about once every 4 years. This has to do with the month of Kislev having 29 days. (happened in 2000, 2004, 2007, 2012, 2016. Will happen in 2020, 2023, 2029, 2032, 2036, 2040, 2043, 2047....) Regarding how often 3 Tevet is on January 1 and also the last day of Chanukah it never happened in the 20th century. ...


1

Answer to 1) - 3 Tevet is the latest date that 8th day Chanukah can occur. This means that both Chehsvan and Kislev are Chaser (deficient - having both 29 days), making the year itself a Chaser. I have to check the kevi'ot chart to see what days of the week Rosh Hashanna occurs for such keviyot. As for other criteria, either Jan. 1 or 2 are the latest dates ...


1

There is a comprehensive compendium of the Rebbe’s discussions on science topics as related to the Torah: Mind over Matter: The Lubavitcher Rebbe on Science, Technology, and Medicine, compiled by Rabbi Joseph Ginsburg and Professor Herman Branover, edited and translated by Arnie Gotfryd, Ph.D. (Jerusalem: Shamir, 2003).


1

Let us start by outlining three simple, basic observations: Secular historians place the first year of Darius in 423 BCE. Traditional Jewish reckoning places the destruction of the Second Jerusalem Temple in 68 CE, which does indeed differ mildly from the scholarly accepted date of 70 CE. From 423 BCE until 68 CE there are precisely 490 years (...


1

An amora is quoted (Vayikra Rabbah 7:3) that elementary students first began their studies with the book of Leviticus, “the young are pure and the sacrifices are pure, let pure be occupied with pure”. In the introduction to his magnum opus Louis Finkelstein observes (Vol. 1 p. 4) that when students graduated to studying biblical exegesis they would ...


1

This source argues that textual witnesses from outside what I will call ancient mainstream Judaism, such as the Samaritan torah, the Septuagint, and the Dead Sea Scrolls cannot be relied upon to show variants in the torah due either to religious reasons or methodological ones. For a theological example the Samaritans believe in the religious importance of ...


1

As noted in Aaron's excellent answer it seems to be incontrovertible that the text of the Torah has changed over time. What is also equally clear, according to every source I can find, is that those changes are in the form of minor textual variants or other euphemistic language (tikkun sof'rim) and have no theological consequence whatsoever. At ...


1

Isaiah (45:1) refers to Cyrus as the Messiah because of his role in returning Jews from exile (source) but it would seem that the general populace's concept of a personal Moshiach developed closer to the end of the second temple period Rise of Popular Belief in a Personal Messiah: Not until after the fall of the Maccabean dynasty, when the despotic ...


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