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8

Yevamos (62b): שנים עשר אלף זוגים תלמידים היו לו לרבי עקיבא מגבת עד אנטיפרס וכולן מתו בפרק אחד מפני שלא נהגו כבוד זה לזה והיה העולם שמם עד שבא ר"ע אצל רבותינו שבדרום ושנאה להם ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ורבי שמעון ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע והם הם העמידו תורה אותה שעה Rabbi Akiva had twelve thousand pairs of students in an area of land that stretched from ...


8

Two basic answers exist to this question: In reality, when the calendar was decided by testimony of the new moon, this phrase probably did not exist in the prayers. Maseches Sofrim 19:4 writes: בחג שבועות אומר ביום טוב מקרא קודש הזה וביום חג השבועות הזה וערבית שחרית ומנחה שוין בתפלות In fact, the Ritva (to Shabbos 86b) and Rivash (Shut no. 96) imply ...


7

Indeed, this is the same person. The entry for "David ben Solomon ibn Zimra (Radbaz)" in The Responsa Literature states: He conducted a large yeshiba and many famous scholars were his pupils. The great talmudic author, Bezalel Ashkenazi, was one of them; and Isaac Luria, the world-famous kabbalist, was another. As for your impression about devoting his ...


7

Rav Yehoshua ibn Shu’ib, Rabbi Mordecai ben Abraham Benet, and the Mateh Moshe (Laws of Shavuot 690) explain that for this reason the more general word 'time' is used instead of the more precise 'day' (the term usually used to refer to a one day holiday), because it hasn't always been the exact day, but it always is in the general time frame of Matan Torah. ...


7

In Melachim II, chapter 22 during the time of King Josiah the High Priest Hilkiah found the "scroll of the law" in the temple. This chapter does not imply that it was necessarily the only such copy of the law (and it's not clear whether it refers to the whole or only part of the Torah), but from the reaction of the king we can infer that its contents were ...


5

The Gemara in Sanhedrin (14a) tells of when Semicha was in danger of being lost forever. But Rav Yehuda Ben Bava saved it: בטלו דיני קנסות מישראל שפעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה גזירה על ישראל שכל הסומך יהרג וכל הנסמך יהרג ועיר שסומכין בה תיחרב ותחומין שסומכין בהן יעקרו The laws of fines would have ceased to be implemented from among the Jewish ...


4

A similar concept is used today, in which a variety of symbols are used from various Rabbinical organizations to mark kosher food (bread included). Read more about hechsherim (singular: hechsher) here.


4

The Ramban wrote a letter to unnamed French rabbis in defense of the Rambam whose books were being banned at that time. "French rabbis" is how he generally refers to the authors of Tosafot (e.g. beginning of Pesachim). The letter is numbered 2 in the first volume of Kitvey Haramban (published by Mosad Harav Kook). The letter is also available online here ...


3

One case is in Temura 16a (translations from Sefaria), where Joshua forgot 3000 laws (other numbers are mentioned too), and Othniel the son of Kenaz restored them: אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שלשת אלפים הלכות נשתכחו בימי אבלו של משה ... אמר רבי אבהו אעפ"כ החזירן עתניאל בן קנז מתוך פלפולו Three thousand halakhot were forgotten during the days of ...


3

It is mentioned in the Talmud. Gitin 60a: רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו אין קוראין בחומשין בבית הכנסת משום כבוד צבור Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: One does not read from ḥumashim in the synagogue out of respect for the community. (Sefaria Translation) Likewise in Rambam Hilchos Sefer Torah 10: נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁעֶשְׂרים דְּבָרִים הֵן שֶׁבְּכָל ...


2

In the Netherlands the kosher bakery uses edible paper stuck to the bread to mark it as Kosher. But their symbol is a Star of David, not a Menorah.


2

Some suggested resources: Yiddish Prof. Havah Turniansky has an article here treating old editions of bentchers. Examining the provenance of each edition may lead you to find reasons for the distribution of particular bentchers and their [stylistic] evolvement in general. The Montefiore Endowment contains a miniature Italian c.1490 manuscript of wedding ...


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