See the last Mishna in ערכין (and some earlier ones) that quote and explain explicit verses in the Torah, that the laws of selling and buying back holdings are different for Levi-property than for other holdings.
יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיָּרַשׁ אֲבִי אִמּוֹ לֵוִי, אֵינוֹ גוֹאֵל כַּסֵּדֶר הַזֶּה. וְכֵן לֵוִי שֶׁיָּרַשׁ אֶת אֲבִי אִמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֵינוֹ גוֹאֵל ...
In parshas noach, c'naan is cursed: וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָר֣וּר כְּנָ֑עַן עֶ֥בֶד עֲבָדִ֖ים יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְאֶחָֽיו. In a similar way to how Yaakov blessed his sons, Noach was actually directing his children towards the path in life which would yield them the greatest success in this world. He was telling C'naan that as a servant to others he would be able to reach his ...
Those two assumptions are incorrect:
God talk to Moses is not bat kol, and not even a higher level of prophecy, It's the Tora itself - those sayings are written in the Tora.
And Moses definitely used his previous knowledge:
ויקרא י יח
הֵ֚ן לֹא־הוּבָ֣א אֶת־דָּמָ֔הּ אֶל־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ פְּנִ֑ימָה אָכ֨וֹל
תֹּאכְל֥וּ אֹתָ֛הּ בַּקֹּ֖דֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוֵּֽיתִי׃...
The Torah allowed the concept of slavery but restricted its practices with the intention of teaching the wrongs within the system. The goal of the Torah was to end slavery. Other examples are the sacrifices, polygamy, and much more. Yet it allows the license to these primitive laws because the ancient Israelites lived in a time where slavery was customary.
Sefer HaChinuch 343 says:
So why did the verse divide them?" [That is] meaning to say, why did
it divide them and not write, "Give neither your money nor your food
with interest." "To cause the transgression of two prohibitions" -
meaning to say, to give multiple warnings about it (Bava Metzia 61a).
And this matter is what I have said above (Sefer ...
Piskei HaRosh Sanhedrin 4:6
דאמוראים האחרונים פעמים חולקין על הראשונים ואדרבה אנו תופסין דברי האחרונים עיקר כיון שידעו סברת הראשונים וסברתם והכריעו בין אלו הסברות ועמדו על עיקרו של דבר
For the later amoraim at times disagreed with the earlier [amoraim], and on the contrary we grasp the words of the later ones as primary since they knew the reasoning ...
The Galus cannot be ended until all the Geirim convert as the Gemara Pesachim 87b says explained by Yaaros Dvash (r'Yonasan Eibeshitz) 8,16:
דע כי אמרו (פסחים פז ע"ב) לא גלו ישראל לבין האומות אלא כדי שיתוספו עליהם גרים כי בכל מקום שהם מתלקטים להם גרים וכאשר יהיו נלקטים הגרים הראוים לבית יעקב והנלוים עמם אז תהיה הגאולה כי זוהי תכלית הגלות ללקט הנפזרים ...
The Rambam discusses cases which I believe are what you call conspiracy (MT Rotzeach uShmirat Nefesh 2:2)
But a person who hires a murderer to kill a colleague, one who sends
his servants and they kill him, one who binds a colleague and leaves
him before a lion or the like and the beast kills him, and a person
who commits suicide are all considered ...
Radak and Metzudas David (ad loc.) interpret "כל בשר" as including non-Jews too.
However this is does not indicate that they will keep Shabbos, or that they may keep Shabbos. It merely indicates that they will also come to the Temple to bow before Hashem.
The Jews will walk, and the non-Jews can drive!
Full disclosure here, I'm not Orthodox, I'm a Reform girl, but this is what I was able to grab, insomuch as understanding where the Orthodox position stands on rabbinic authority.
First, some clarification. Halacha is Jewish law with a practical basis. Aggadah, which was not passed down from Halacha L'Moshe Mi'Sinai, is Jewish folklore. Today, we won't be ...
It depends which kind of rabbinic authority you are talking about - nowadays there isn't much. When there was a clear centralised rabbinic body accepted by all, that had a power similar to that of the Sanhedrin. See How does halacha work?
Their job of determining the true understanding of texts
I have heard from many sources, Rabbi Orlofsky being the most recent. The idea that the fact that the torah says
וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אַךְ אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי ה' מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם: וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת ...
I don't think that you will be able to find a solid source, because during the biblical era the authority came from the prophets, not Rabbis. After prophecy stopped, the Rabbis took over the prophets.
בבא בתרא יב א
אמר אמימר וחכם עדיף מנביא
Bava Batra 12a
Amimar said, a sage is better then a prophet.
Gemara Shabbos 35a:
אמר רב מעין המיטלטל טהור וזהו בארה של מרים
Rav said: A spring that is portable, i.e., that moves from place to
place, is ritually pure and is regarded as an actual spring and not as
drawn water. And what is a movable spring? It is Miriam’s well.
Rashi explains, that it could be used as a mikvah.
טהור - מלקבל טומאה וטובלין ...
The Torah is (seemingly) explicit that all G-d's servants left Egypt (Exodus 12.41):
וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיְהִי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה
יָצְאוּ כָּל־צִבְאוֹת ה' מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃
at the end of the four hundred and thirtieth year, to the very day, all the ranks of the LORD departed from the land of Egypt.
Rashi on Shemot 10:22 writes regarding the plague of darkness
And why did He bring darkness upon them? Because there were wicked
people amongst the Israelites of that generation who had no desire to
leave Egypt, and these died during the three days of darkness so that
the Egyptians might not see their destruction and say, “These, (the
Halichos Olam (shaar 4) quotes Rashi and Tosafos to Sukkah 31a, who disagree about this. Rashi (ד"ה לא מקשינן) says that only a kal vachomer can be thought up independently, but not any of the others. Tosafos (ד"ה ור"י) argue, and say that only gezeirah shavah requires a mesorah, but all of the others can be thought up independently.
Yavin Shmuah, a little ...