Short answer: like any good subject in Judaism; there isn't only one answer.
the 360° turn seems to be unanimous but the right-left is sometimes perceived as a custom and sometimes as a mistake.
The main sources that I found are Masehet Sofrim, Mishna Brura "B, 30" & Hazon Ish's custom.
[מסכת סופרים, משנה ברורה ב', סימן קל"ד ס"ק ב' ...
As indicated by msh210, it is a common custom on Simchas Torah to turn the Sefer Torah outwards when doing Hagbah after reading V'zos habrachah (the very end of the Pentateuch), and some do it for B'reishis Bara (The beginning) and Maftir (the day's offerings) too. Some Ashkenazim do it both by night and by day, some only in the morning, and some not at all....
It is halachically forbidden for the gabbai to honor an individual with Hagbah if he knows he will not be able to do it properly. It is imperative that the congregation be able to see the writing in the Sefer Torah well, and therefore the Torah must be opened enough and for long enough to see the writing in the Torah. If the person being called up is unaware ...
It is stated here in the name of Rabbi Chaim Pinchas Scheinberg, that pointing with the pinkie finger, is a symbolism for approaching Torah with humility and a sense of smallness, just like the pinkie which is the smallest of the fingers.
Is there a picture of their technique or a description how it's done?
Screen cap from the link that MoriDoweedhYaa3qob posted:
Using some cloth (Talith or similar) the parchment is lifted to about head-height. To do this, one would have to unroll the Sefer Torah while lifting it.
Probably best to grab it at the seam (which you can find every 3 to 4 ...
The Mishnah Berurah (146:17) explains the ruling of the Mechaber that one doesn't need to stand for keriat ha-torah, because when the Torah is "in its place" one doesn't need to stand: א"צ לעמוד וכו' - ואפילו העומדים על הבימה דא"צ לעמוד מפני ס"ת אלא כשאדם נושאה אבל כשמונחת במקומה א"צ...וכן אפילו כשאחד תופסה בידו כגון בעת שקורין ההפטרה כיון שהוא יושב במקומו א"...
There is no definitive reason as to why specifically the pinky is used to point. In fact, others advocate using the pointer (cf. R. Haim Palagi, Lev Haim vol. 2 §167 3.6)
R. Meir Mazuz suggested a novel theory (Mekor Ne’eman vol. 1 §976) that perhaps the pinky is used to signify the verse (Isa. 40:12) “מִֽי־מָדַ֨ד בְּשָׁעֳל֜וֹ מַ֗יִם וְשָׁמַ֙יִם֙ בַּזֶּ֣רֶת ...
The Ramban in parshas Ki Tavo on passuk 27:26 brings the idea of hagbah:
אמרו על דרך אגדה, זה החזן, שאינו מקים ספרי התורה להעמידן כתקנן שלא
יפלו. ולי נראה, על החזן שאינו מקים ספר תורה על הצבור להראות פני כתיבתו
לכל, כמו שמפורש במסכת סופרים (יד יד) שמגביהין אותו ומראה פני כתיבתו
לעם העומדים לימינו ולשמאלו ומחזירו לפניו ולאחריו, שמצוה לכל אנשים
The answer here, on the bottom of p. 3 may surprise you, as it surprised me.
According to Rav Amram Ga'on, the Golel is the one that should be reciting this prayer all the time, not the shat"z. Note that he says "The last one rolls the Torah", meaning that the person who gotthe last Aliyah is the Golel. Also, note that he doesn't mention a magbi'ah. It's ...
The minhag is to cover the scroll at all times (except when reading). Thus, if there is a long wait between the Hagbaah and the Aliya, it should be covered and if it is only a couple of seconds it is just cumbersome to cover it. BTW, Ashkenazi Jews do the Hagbaah after the reading.
I don't understand, if the book is too heavy for anyone to carry, how has it ...
Ashkenazi - It's more about technique then strength. Lifting it right up is hard even for a strong person, but sliding it down and then picking it up is easy. The difficult part is to do the spin, step back to the bench and sit while keeping the scroll stretched, and that's more about control and dexterity then strength.
So you need to get fairly heavy and ...
A simple answer to your final question would be to simply rotate the Sefer Torah on the Bimah by 90 degrees counterclockwise (where the face is the surface that the Torah is resting on), and then unroll and lift it from the right side of the Bima (where a Gabbai usually stands), directly showing those on the right, and then turning around.
This Minhag is by no means universal. Minhag Chabad is to specifically wrap the belt around the lower third. The reason this is done so is that we compare it to the Gartel one wears between his heart and his lower body. The Sefer Torah has three parts, Head, Body, Foot. ...
Yalkut Yosef (147:1) writes that there is no distinction:
אסור לאחוז בספר תורה בגוף הקלף או הגויל בלי מטפחת, בין כשגולל את
הספר תורה בעת קריאת התורה בצבור, ובין כשגולל הספר תורה בינו לבין
עצמו, והחמירו חכמים הרבה מאד בזה, ואמרו, שכל האוחז ספר תורה ערום בלי
מטפחת נקבר ערום בלא אותה מצוה שעשה בעת אחיזתו, אם זו קריאה, או גלילה,
וצריך להזהר מאד בזה. ...
See this with its cross-refs to Shulchan Aruch:
What are the dinim concerning mistakingly touching the klaf of the
when kissing it with one’s tziztis
when doing glila
In both cases one should be careful not to touch the Sefer Torah with
bare hands. The Gemara writes that one who touches the parchment of
The sefer Piskei Teshuvos Siman 134 #5 Says the following (I'm paraphrasing):
The language of the Shulchan Aruch is "Show the writing of the sefer
torah to the people that are standing to his right and to his left and
turn it to the front of him and to the back of him etc"
This is the language of Meseches Sofrim and is giving the halacha for